Nabteb Chemistry Practical 2022 Answers for 2nd July 2022
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(NO 1) 1. Bribery and corruption: some civil servants divert public fund to their personal pockets. Property meant for the public service are turned to theirs. In fact some will not perform their routine duties effectively until they are sufficiently bribe. This may lack citizens confidence from the government. 2. Poor condition of service: That is, salaries of the civil servants are not attractive. Promotion are also slow. Citizens will absolutely lost trust in the government. 3. Another reason that will make citizens to lust trust in any government if the political power that is in government failed to fulfilling their manifesto. 4. Tribalism, favouritism and nepotism: Some key appointments into top position and promotion in any government department are not base on merits but nepotism and tribalism preferential treatment to friends, relatives ect. 5. Finally, incompetent of the presidential candidate and his executives. That is, if the three arm’s of government are not perverting justice according to the constitution. Citizens will lose confidence in the government. ================================= (NO 2) (CHOOSE ANY 5) 1. Every adult citizen has the right to vote in elections, on a non-discriminatory basis. (2) Every adult citizen has the right to access to an effective, impartial and non-discriminatory procedure for the registration of voters. (3) No eligible citizen shall be denied the right to vote or disqualified from registration as a voter, otherwise than in accordance with objectively verifiable criteria prescribed by law, and provided that such measures are consistent with the State’s obligations under international law. (4) Every individual who is denied the right to vote or to be registered as a voter shall be entitled to appeal to a jurisdiction competent to review such decisions and to correct errors promptly and effectively. (5) Every voter has the right to equal and effective access to a polling station in order to exercise his or her right to vote. (6) Every voter is entitled to exercise his or her right equally with others and to have his or her vote accorded equivalent weight to that of others. (7) The right to vote in secret is absolute and shall not be restricted in any manner whatsoever. ———————————————— ANOTHER NUMBER TWO 1.) Citizens are able to register to vote Governments can place some restrictions on who can register to vote based on age, residency, or citizenship status. However, for an election to be free and fair, governments cannot prevent eligible voters from registering or make it more difficult for some groups of people to register than others. For example, until the Voting Rights Act was passed in the United States in 1965, many Southern states required Black voters to take literacy tests in order to register to vote. These tests were designed to be impossible to pass and to prevent Black people from voting, which means that the elections held in these states during this time period were not free and fair. 2.) Citizens are able to register to vote Governments can place some restrictions on who can register to vote based on age, residency, or citizenship status. However, for an election to be free and fair, governments cannot prevent eligible voters from registering or make it more difficult for some groups of people to register than others. For example, until the Voting Rights Act was passed in the United States in 1965, many Southern states required Black voters to take literacy tests in order to register to vote. These tests were designed to be impossible to pass and to prevent Black people from voting, which means that the elections held in these states during this time period were not free and fair. 3.) Citizens can run for office Governments cannot attack or intimidate people who decide to run for office or create discriminatory rules about who is allowed to run. 4.) All voters have access to a polling place or another method of voting People need to be able to freely cast their ballots. Voters should be able to reach polling stations, enter them, and cast their votes regardless of who they are or where they live. If voters are unable to vote in person: —for example because of a disability, health condition, or a lack of transportation —they should have access to an alternative method of voting, such as voting by mail. 5.) Voting is free from fraud Every eligible voter should be able to vote only one time, and ineligible voters should be prevented from voting. For example, opposition leaders in Cameroon accused the ruling party of filling out hundreds of ballots in their favor to stuff into ballot boxes during local and parliamentary elections held in 2020. =============================== (NO 3) – Compromises the Rule of Law: With the interfered independence of the judiciary also comes the compromise of the rule of law. Many people who would otherwise not have their way within the normal channels will always be too quick to rush to the judiciary to beat the odds. If left unchecked, this might compromise the rule of law permanently. – Opens the Floodgates for Mob Justice: This is simply a situation whereby the public law and order is not maintained as per the laid rules and regulations but on what the public wishes for at any given time. This is a bad precedent that should never be set, let alone followed. – Likely to create confusion: If the mandates issued out by the judiciary contradict or are in variance with the ones passed by the legislature, the result might be heavy confusion. – Highly prone to biases: When all is said and done under this circumstance, the ruling issued out by the judiciary is often largely determined by the strength of the lobbyists, not what is truly good for the public. Thus, it is highly likely to be prone to biases and especially in favor of those with the necessary clout. This is also not to mention the possibilities of corruption and bribery taking root. – Interferes with the Independence of the Legislature: Judiciaries ought to be completely independent and uncompromised. That is why, for a large part, they have to base their rulings and convictions purely based on the evidence tabled before them and the laws passed. =============================== (NO 4) (i) A state is a territorial association of people with defined boundaries, while Government is an administrative institution within a state. (ii) A state is more inclusive and therefore greater than government i.e. it embraces all the people and associations within a given area while Government is not as inclusive as the state. (iii) A state is a continuing entity. It is therefore permanent. It can hardly be overthrown or changed. while Government is a temporary institution. It only lasts over a period of time. It can be overthrown (iv) A state depends on government in carrying out its activities. while Government is the machinery by which the functions of a state are performed. (v) A state has its elements, as population, territory, government and sovereignty. Government has its main organs as the legislature, executive and judiciary. =============================== (NO 6) (i) Settlement of disputes: The traditional rulers performed some judicial functions by settling dispute among the people in their community (ii) Creation of law enforcement: They also created law enforcement institutions like e.g age grades and masquerade to enable them maintain law and order in the community. (iii) The use of ancestral spirits: The ancestral spirits were used by the traditional rulers to control their subjects which they believ guides their footseps.
Nabteb Further Maths Answers 2022 – [Obj & Essay] 23rd June 2022 (iv) The use of sanction and punishments: These measures were applied against law breakers in the community, e.g banishment. (v) The introduction of rewards: people who had contributed to the development of their areas were rewarded with titles or distribution of land and war booty. (vi) Appointment of Chiefs: Chiefs were appointed by traditional rulers in order to use them to control their subjects (vii) Conscription of youths: The traditional rulers conscripted youths to perform forced labour and serve in the British army during the world wars. =============================== (NO 8) 1.) Historical experience The major reason for the adoption of federal system of government in Nigeria is borne out of the historical experience that brought all the ethical groups together under one Nigeria. It has severally been emphasized by both the Northern and Western politicians that God did not create Nigeria but the British. The British in their quest for economic wealth and geo-political edges over other Europeans in Africa made Nigeria the largest British colony in Africa. The Emergence of Nigeria as a political entity under colonial rule was not an easy affair. It came about following the necessity for administrative convenience and managerial expenses. Moreover, it is important to note that most of the ethnic groups in Nigeria had strong political inter-group relationship before colonial rule. The history of Ijaw, Edo, Igala, Yoruba, Igbo, Nupe and Hausa Kingdoms are enriched with social-political relationships that existed before the emergence of the white man. Political institutions, Kinship ties, Origin of towns and their cultural antecedents are enriched with similar history. All these strengthen political bonds and gave Rice to unity in diversity. 2.) Unity of the country This is also one of the reasons for federal system of government in Nigeria. Federalism was basically introduced to bring about peace and unity in the different regions of the country. In many countries of the world, federalism has emerged as a means of accommodating the growing desire of people to preserve or revive the intimacy of small societies and the growing necessity for larger combinations to mobilize the utilization of common resources. The unity here is brought about by the desire of the component units of the federation to form union in respect of some matters. Mere desire to unite is not enough but there must be the desire to remain separate in respect to other matters. If the desire to remain separate does not exist, the the association will not be federal but unitary with some delegation of powers to local government. 3.) Political culture of Nigeria: Another important factor that necessitated federalism in Nigeria was the political culture of the country. Evidently, Nigeria’s political culture was federalism friendly and that gave rise to easy adoption of federalism. As I have already explained, Nigeria is an amalgamation of three different regions with beliefs and customs. Federalism was the only solution to ensure peace and unity amongst the leaders and the citizens and that was why federalism was adopted into the Nigerian political system. In the same way, the political culture of the United States is civic, republican and participatory. It represents a synthetic between two perspectiveneess; one is that politics of the United States should produce the good commonwealth and the other is that the principal task of politics is to create an open political market. 4.) Ethnic, Religious and Geographical Factor No doubt, the Ethnic, Religious and Geographical nature of Nigeria also contributed to the reason why federalism was adopted. This is so because where federal principles apply, the various ethnic groups that cannot or don’t form majority to produce large part may have the opportunity of governing themselves within their federating unit controlled by them. Common national, racial, religious, cultural linguistic or social ties have often contributed to the unification of political unit. In some areas where major communal or other social antagonism cuts across territorial boundaries, ranging through all the federating units, communities or classes have been driven to seek to protect or strengthen their position by inter-territorial union. The fear of ethnic groups overlapping regional boundaries and the loyalties of castes cutting of some extent across provincial political boundaries also encourage some groups to support wider federal unions. There is no doubt that geographical factored are one of the influential reasons for federalism in Nigeria. The effectiveness of linking communications has been a vital factor in geographical unit.
Nabteb Further Maths Answers 2022 – [Obj & Essay] 23rd June 2022 5.). Minority Marginalization Another cogent reason for federalism in Nigeria is the fear of marginalization. In other not to control only some parts of the big country, Nigeria, the colonial masters thought it wise to divide the country into different component units that will be represented in the government. This helped to solve the problem of marginalization in the leadership. The fear of marginalization by the minority in a unitary system of government has, to a great extent, influenced the majority state support for federating states. In a Unitary system, the minority states cannot govern the entire region which is controlled by majority. Thus, federalism seemed to be the only option left for Nigeria because it allows for popular participation in government. Here, both the majority and minority are represented in the government. 6.) Resource control: The availability of resources in a particular region and the need for that area to control the resources has also been seen as a reason for a federal system in Nigeria. This has nexus with the particular sharing formula adopted. In a unitary constitution which opposes federal principles, everything belongs to the central government; the federating unit does not exist, let alone agitating for resource control. However, that is not so in a federal government system. =============================== (NO 9) (9a) E government is the use of or application of information technologies (such as Internet and intranet systems) to government activities and processes in order to facilitate the flow of information from government to its citizens, from citizens to government and within government. (9b) (i)Inclusive Governance; E-governance helps in building trust between governments and citizens, an essential factor in good governance by using internet-based strategies to involve citizens in the policy process, illustrating government transparency and accountability. (ii)Easy and Quick Implementation; With e-government, paperwork has been made so simple and intuitive. This facilitates sharing of information and ideas between all government agencies and department to build one mega data base. Getting the government decisions and policies across to the citizens is easy as well. (iii)High Operational Efficiency; What matters a lot to citizens is the efficiency of the services being provided. The effectiveness of government is measured by the quality of its interactions with citizens. The processing of paperwork in a traditional government system is a difficult task which consumes a lot of resources.
(i) Subsistence and Commercial Activities: Agriculture is the main economic activity. Grain is the staple diet, including Guinea corn, millet, maize, and rice. The Hausa also grow and eat root crops and a variety of vegetables. Cotton and peanuts are processed and used locally, but part of the harvest is exported. The Hausa practice intercropping and double-cropping; their main implement is the hoe.
(ii) Industrial Arts: There are full-time specialists only where there is an assured market for craft products. Men’s crafts include tanning, leatherworking, saddling, weaving, dying, woodworking, and smithing. Iron has been mined, smelted, and worked as far back as there are Hausa traditions.
(iii) Trade: Trade is complicated and varied. Some traders deal in a particular market, as distinguished from those who trade in many markets over a long distance. This dual trade strategy, augmented by the contributions of the Cattle Fulani, enabled the Hausa to meet all of their requirements, even during the nineteenth century.
(iv) Division of Labor: Hausa society traditionally observes several divisions of labor: in public administration, it is primarily men who may be appointed, although some women hold appointed positions in the palace. Class determines what sort of work one might do, and gender determines work roles. When women engage in income-producing activities, they may keep what they earn
(v) Land Tenure: The rural householder farms with his sons’ help; from the old farm, he allocates to them small plots, which he enlarges as they mature. New family fields are cleared from the bush.
(3) (i)Each Igbo village was seen as a political unit inhabited by related families who were bounded by common beliefs and origin. Each family head in the village held the ‘Ofo‘ title and altogether formed the council of elders.
(iii)Among the council of elders, one was recognized as the most senior to others. He was the ‘Okpara‘. He could call for and adjourn a meeting, and could also give judgements as well.
(iii)the age-grade. The age-grade consisted of youngsters that belong to the same age-group. The senior age-group maintained peace and order in the village and also provided security to ward off external attacks, while the junior age-group concentrated on the sanitation of the community and other necessary duties.
(iv)the ‘Ozo‘ title holders. This expensive title was conferred on wealthy and influential men in the community who after getting the title become recognized and could then preside over meetings with the village elders.
Nabteb Further Maths Answers 2022 – [Obj & Essay] 23rd June 2022
(v)they were believed to be the mouthpiece of the gods e.g. Aro’s long juju. Even the council of elders consulted the priests on matters that were beyond their powers i.e. matters that needed spiritual intervention.
i. The Nature of Islam:
The nature of Islam as a religion accepting polygamy to some extent, its tolerance of traditional African religions, its simplicity of doctrine and mode of worship helped propagators to make converts in Africa. These factors also made Islam easily adaptable to the African communities with which it came in contact. Again, the Islamisation of Africa was paralleled by the Africanisation of Islam. The making and sale of charms and amulets, which were believed to offer protection against evil forces and generally ensure success in life, were important in winning over converts.
Another major reason that led to the rapid spread of Islam in West Africa was the trans-Saharan trade network. From the seventh century onwards, Muslim traders from the Maghreb and the Sahara started settling first in some of the market centres in the Sahel and then in the Savanna areas. Al-Bakri, a renowned Arabic Scholar and merchant wrote in 1067, that the capital of ancient Ghana was already divided into two parts; about six miles apart, the Muslim traders’ part which had as many as twelve mosques and the King’s part had one mosque for the use of the king’s Muslim visitors. It was these resident Muslim traders who converted the rulers and the principal local town’s people to Islam. Also, according to Kano Chronicles, during the reign of Yaji, the King of Kano from 1349 to 1385, the Wangarawa came from Melle bringing the Mohammedan religion. These examples grew the process of Islamisation or conversion to Islam, as it gathered momentum.
iii. Activities of Muslim Clerics:
Islam also spread into West Africa through the activities of Muslim clerics, marabouts and scholars or mallams. These clerics or learned men founded their own religious centres which attracted students from all parts of the Western Sudan and who on the completion of their studies and training went back to their own homes to win converts. Many of them went on lecture or missionary tours to convert people, while others became advisers to Sudanese Kings on how to become effective rulers. Some clerics devoted a great deal of their time to writing books and instructions on all aspects of Islam for the education and conversion of people or the purification and strengthening of Islam. Some examples of clerics follow:
Ibu Khadija al-Kumi, a Muslim missionary and Abu Ishaq al-Sahili, a poet, scholar and architect from Granada were both invited by Mansa Musa to accompany him on his return from his celebrated pilgrimage in 1324/5. Both of them settled in Mali where they taught Islam. Al-Sahili also designed the great mosque of Timbuktu as well as a magnificent palace for Mansa Musa in the capital of Mali.
Again, the great Mande scholar, Abd Rahman Zaite (now identified as Abd al-Rahman Jakhite) settled in Kano on the invitation of Rumfa, the King of Kano. He built a mosque and introduced the practice of Koran recital and other devotional exercises.
Another brilliant Berber scholar called Abd al-Rahman al-Maghili (1477-78) established his Zawiyaie Islamic school in Tuat in the Sahara, and from there went on a missionary tour of the Western Sudan which lasted from 1492 to 1503. During this tour, he visited Air, Takedda, Kano, Katsina and Gao and preached to both rulers and commoners.
iv. Activities of Rulers:
Islam gained ground in West Africa through the activities of the individual rulers. The rulers of the Western Sudan encouraged the trans-Saharan trade and extended hospitality to both traders and visiting clerics, but perhaps one of the most important ways in which they encouraged acceptance of Islam was through their own conversion. With a Muslim King or ruler it rapidly became a matter of prestige among the aristocracy also to convert to Islam in many kingdoms. Many rulers made considerable efforts to encourage Muslim institutions such as Islamic tax and legal systems or the provision of facilities such as mosques, through the appointment of Muslim officials such as judges and butchers who observe the Islamic code and to lead prayers, celebrating Muslim festival and ordering every town under their control to observe the ritual prayers. The pilgrimages that many of the rulers undertook – such as Mansa Musa and Askia Mohammed — had a considerable spiritual effect increasing their determination both to strengthen and purify Islam and to spread it even further.
v. Holy War:
What is more, another way in which Islam was introduced and spread in West Africa in general and the Western Sudan in particular was the militant jihad, or the waging of holy war against infidels or lukewarm Muslims. This method allowed the third and final stage of the process of Islamisation to reach its climax with the nineteenth-century jihad in the Western Sudan, between Mali and Senegambia and Hausaland in northern Nigeria.
The first jihad in the Western Sudan which has accounts was that waged by the head of the Sudanese confederation. It was Tarsina against the Sudanese people in 1023, soon after his return from the pilgrimage to Mecca. He was killed during these clashes. The second is that of the King of Takrur, War-Ajabbi, before his death in 1040. The third and the best known of these early jihads was the one declared by the Almoravid movement of ancient Ghana between 1048 and 1054 by the scholar, Abdallah Ibn Yasin. Between 1056 and 1070s, the Almoravid conquered the whole area between ancient Ghana and Sijilmasa. By 1087 the Almoravid Empire stretched from the Senegal in the south across the Mediterranean to Spain in the north.
Islam also spread on to West Africa through inter-marriages. The Muslim merchants from North Africa came down settled and married the African women who became Muslims including their children.
(6a) i. The constitutions enacted during this period were the Clifford Constitution in 1922.
ii. The Richards Constitution in 1946.
iii. The Macpherson Constitution in 1951.
iv. The Lyttleton Constitution in 1954.
v. In 1946 a new constitution was approved by Westminster and promulgated in Nigeria.
i. In the executive council, The ministers were not given portfolios. They acted as mere officers of government. They had no power to issue orders to their directors. However, they were collectively responsible for all policy decisions.
ii. There were also criticism, on the creation of unequal status and adoption of two houses of legislature (bicameral in the Northern and Western regions only).
iii. The continued appointment of special members in the House of Representatives, House of assembly and the Electoral college system of election, were some of the serious criticisms.
iv. Even though the 1951 constitution was the result of series of consultations with the various levels of government and educated elites, it received some criticisms from the Nigerian nationalists who saw it as a constitution built on compromise.
v. It could be stated that the 1951 constitution enjoyed wide publicity. Generally the constitution could be seen as constitution that recognized the demands of the people.
(8) (i) Ethnically based Federal Regions, with uneven size and power: The first structural weakness which set the First Republic in Nigeria for political crisis was its ethnically- based federal regions and the asymmetry in size and power between them. Upon independence, Nigeria was composed of three federating regions: Northern, Eastern and Western regions. (Later in 1963 a new region, the Mid-West, was carved out of the West following a crisis in that region). Each of the regions was dominated by one of the country’s three largest ethnic groups: Hausa-Fulani in the North, Yoruba in the West and Igbo in the East. This arrangement presided over by the dominant ethnic groups placed minorities at a considerable disadvantage in the competition for jobs and resources at the regional level.
(ii) Ethno-Regional Political Parties: The second structural weakness which afflicted the First Republic was the emotive association between political party and ethno- regional identity. This meant politics largely “revolved around ethnic-based regional…parties”. Reflecting the tripodal ethnic balance, three parties bestrode the political scene like titans and thus shaped the destiny of the First Republic: Northern People’s Congress (NPC), the Action Group (AG), and the National Council of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC). All three parties originally emerged out of ethno-cultural associations: NPC from Jam’iyar Mutanen Arewa (Association of Peoples of the North) AG from Egbe omo Oduduwa (Society for the Descendants of Oduduwa.
(iii) The political alignment which formed after the 1959 election: It can be argued that the political constellation which emerged after the 1959 election was the most potent of the young republic’s structural weaknesses. It had huge impacts on the stability of the soon to be an independent nation. The North-South governing coalition between the NPC and the NCNC, variously described as “unnatural”, a coalition of “strange bedfellows”, only accentuated the republic’s structural imbalances. On immediate observations, it was certainly a partnership of unequal – with the NPC being by far the more powerful of the two governing parties. This meant the NCNC was always acutely sensitive to the tenuousness of its share of power.
(iv) The fear of ethnic domination: The last and deepest of the structural weaknesses was the fear of ethnic domination which pervaded the politics of the First Republic. The Yorubas and Igbos in the two southern regions feared that the Hausa-Fulanis would use the North’s demographic preponderance to perpetuate northern hegemony and monopolise federal resources for their region; Hausa-Fulanis, in turn, feared that in an open contest, the Yorubas and Igbos, being the more educated, would dominate the political and economic structures of the federation.
(v) The disintegration of the AG, 1962-63: The collapse of the AG’s political power between 1962 and 1963 produced far-reaching effects. The crisis that engulfed the party stemmed from its “staggering defeat” in 1959. It had been ‘relegated’ to the opposition. The NCNC had made impressive inroads into its regional heartland, securing for itself 21 seats in the AG’s political turf by exploiting minority discontent within the Western Region. (iv)High Level of Trust on Government; For any government to survive or maintain or keep control of power, such government must win the trust of the majority of the citizens. E-government can always afford that for any government that embraces it. It improves services through better understanding of citizens’ requirements, thus aiming for seamless online services. (v)Reduces Costs of Running a Government; E-government is very cost effective. Let’s take for example that government wants to seek a public opinion on an issue, with e-government system it can take a survey and the opinion very fast at extremely low cost. That also applies when government would want to capture some data.
Pick Five Only !!
° Provision of drinking water
° Food, habitat,
° Hydroelectric power
° Pollution control.
(i) HORTICULTURE is the science and art of cultivating fruits, vegetables, flowers, or ornamental plants. It also includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, soil management, landscape and garden design, construction, and maintenance.
(ii) VITICULTURE is the cultivation and harvesting of grapes. … Viticulturists are often intimately involved with winemakers, because vineyard management and the resulting grape characteristics provide the basis from which winemaking can begin.
(iii) AQUACULTURE is the breeding, rearing, and harvesting of fish, shellfish, algae, and other organisms in all types of water environments.
(iv) DRY FARMING, also called Dryland Farming, the cultivation of crops without irrigation in regions of limited moisture, typically less than 20 inches (50 centimetres) of precipitation annually.
(i) TRADE – railways would link areas with mines and factories directly to ports so that British produce could be exported all over the country and the world. Farmers would be able to send their produce to market easily and quickly.
(ii) COST – raw materials and manufactured goods could be transported cheaply so prices could be reduced. Lower prices would mean more products could be sold, increasing profits for industrialists. The public would be more able to travel as the cost of transport would become more affordable.
(iii) RELIABILITY – unlike the rivers, which froze during the winter or were unnavigable during the summer, railways were almost always able to transport goods.
(iv) POPULATION GROWTH – the increase in population, especially those living in towns, meant an increase in demand for the distribution of bulky goods such as coal.
(v) IMPORT & EXPORT; to supply raw materials to other parts of the country e.g East African railway, to link important cities and facilitate movement of people
(i) Seat of Civilization for Hindus Religion: This brings many believers in the region together.Also,the practice of the religion attracts other people from other parts of the world to India.
(ii) Favourable monsoon climate: Thereis the monsoon climate which brings heavy rainfall which promotes the cultivation office, wheat,cotton, etc.
(iii) Presence of minerals: The presence of some minerals like coal and tin ore in this area attracts high population concentration.
(iv) Early marriage: Early marriage in India Is very common and this gives rise or leads to high birth rate.
(v) Trade and commerce: There is a favourable trade and commercial activities in India,hence people are attracted to the area.
(i) Human porterage is relatively cheap as compared to other means of transport. This is because human beings are always available and may not need fuel for them to move from one place to another. The maintenance cost of human porterage is slightly lower hence cheap means of transport.
(ii) A ropeway is a form of naval lifting device used to transport light stores and equipment across rivers or ravines. It comprises a jackstay, slung between two sheers or gyms, one at either end, from which is suspended a block and tackle, that is free to travel along the rope and hauled back and forth by inhauls (ropes attached to the pulley from which the block and tackle are suspended). It is a useful method of transportation for a very short distance.
(iii) River Ports serve as important transportation hubs that facilitate goods movement goods movement The distribution of freight (including raw materials, parts and finished consumer products) by all modes of transportation including marine, air, rail and truck. to businesses in local communities and worldwide markets.
(iv) Pipeline transportation is a method of transportation which involves movement of solid, liquid or gaseous products over long distances through pipelines. This mode of transportation is mostly used for transport of crude and refined petroleum products such as oil and natural gas.
Nabteb Chemistry Answers 2022 – [Practical] 2nd July 2022