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Table of Contents
2022/2023 NECO Biology Practical Answers for Essay Objectives and Oral Questions And Available Now
Tuesday 19th July 2022
Paper I: Practical – Biology – 10:00am – 12:00noon
BIOLOGY PRACTICAL ANSWERS (1a) A; microscope B; a ripe mango fruit C; Transverse section of tomato fruit D; Groundnut seed E; maize grains
(1aii) (i) objective lens (ii) nose pierce (iii) aperture
(1aiii) It is use to magnify object that is to be viewed
(1biii) (i)its flesh are eaten by animals (ii)the seeds are passed out as waste by some animal
(1biv) Tabulate; Under B (i)it is yellowish in colour (ii)beans like shaped
Under C (i)it is reddish in colour (ii)not beans like shaped
(1ci) Tabulate Under Observation; (i)light passes through it but the other side can not be seen
Under Conclusion; (i)it contains oil which makes the paper a translucent material
(1cii) Fats and oil
(1ciii) It serves as food. ============================== (2ai) F; carrots G; Irish potato H; water Lily I; prawn
(2aii) It improve sight
(2aiii) This is because it has a modified stem
(2aiv) Tabulate Under Observation; (i)it gives a blue black colour
Under Conclusion; (i)starch is present
(2bi) (i)presence of big leaves (ii)presence of cuticle (iii)presence of horns (iv)presence of rims
(2biii) (i)presence of tail fin (ii)presence of scales
(2biv) Tabulate; Under External features (i)Tail fin (ii) Antenna (iii)legs/limbs
Under Function; (i) Locomotion (ii) sensitivity (iii) locomotion
(3ciii) (i)presence of wings (ii)presence of book lung
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NECO Biology Specimen 2022: The national examination council (Neco) has just released the official Neco 2022 specimen for biology for the 2022 Neco Biology examination.
As we all know, without passing the examination practicals, there is no way you can pass the exam, so, practical is a very important aspect of the Neco examination, here we are providing you with the materials needed for this practical examination.
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Are you a Neco candidate for 2022? then below is the complete Neco biology specimen 2022 that you have been searching for. The interesting part of this is we included diagrams of all the specimens to make it easy for you to identify them all.
Neco Biology Practical Specimen 2022
INSTRUCTION(S) TO SCHOOL
1. The information contained here is highly confidential. Therefore, efforts should be made to avoid candidates getting to know of this either directly or indirectly before the examination.
2. Each candidate should bring to the examination hall/laboratory:
(a) A sharpened Pencil (HB).
(b) An Eraser.
(c) A Ruler.
(d) A Sharp Razor Blade or Scalpel or Knife.
3. The school should provide the following for the candidates:
(i) Iodine Solution.
(iii) Million’s Reagent.
4. Candidates should be provided with the following specimens during the examination:
A Ripe Mango Fruit
Transverse Section of Tomato Fruit
Groundnut Seed (Fried/Dried)
Irish Potatoes (RAW)
Tadpole (8-9 weeks old)
Neco Biology Specimen 2022
Neco Biology Practical Specimen Questions 2022, Neco Chemistry Practical Specimen 2022, Neco Physics Practical 2022 Specimen, yellow paper for biology Neco 2022, Neco Biology Yellow Paper 2022.
(1a) (i) To safeguard farmers against unreasonable eviction (ii) To ensure that agricultural land is not unnecessarily diverted to non-agricultural purposes (iii) To make large tracts of land available for Biology Practical-sponsored development of large scale farms (iv) To carry out large scale improvement such as irrigation, drainage and soil water conservation
(1bi) Mechanical power
(1bii) (i) It can handle more areas per unit of time (ii) It works faster and more efficient (iii) It can perform a wide range of operation (iv) It reduces cost of labor and total cost of production
(1c) (i) Seed tube: They conduct seeds from feed cups to the furrow lines (ii) Furrow opener: It creates a well-defined groove in the soil where the seed can be placed at the proper depth (iii) Hopper: holds particulate matter or flow-able material of any sort (iv) Seed metering device: to collect seed in a singular or group fashion (v) Furrow wheel: To stabilize the plough and take side thrust
(1d) (i) Power threshers (ii) Milling machine (iii) Winnowing machine ================================= (2a) (i) Monocropping: The practice of growing a single crop year after year on the same land.
(ii) Mixed cropping: It involves the growing of two or more species or cultivars of the same species simultaneously in the same field.
(iii) Mixed farming: It is a type of farming which involves both the growing of crops and the raising of livestock.
(iv) Crop rotation: the practice of growing a series of different types of crops in the same area across a sequence of growing seasons.
(2c) (i) Wax (ii) Propolis (iii) Old brood comb (iv) Pheromones (v) Lemongrass essential oil ================================= (3a) (i) Storage pests: During storage, pests can infest crops if storage is not properly done. (ii) Moisture: Maize can be destroyed if water finds its way into the maize grains. (iii) Temperature: Maize will be destroyed during storage if temperature is not adequate (iv) Poor aeration: When Maize grains during storage do not have access to moderate aeration, they can be damaged.
(3bi) [CHECK IMAGE BELOW]
(3bii) (i) 1:2:1 (ii) 3:1
(3c) Mendel’s first law states that genes are present in pairs in non-reproductive cells so that each gamete contains only one contrasting factor. [SEGREGATION]
Mendel’s second law states that when more than one pair of factors are considered, each pair segregates independently of every other pair.[INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT]
(3d) (PICK ANY TWO) (i) Alfalfa (ii) Andropogon (iii) Sorghum (iv) Panicum (v) Pennisetum (vi) Axonopus (NO 3)
================================= (NO 4)
(4c) (i) It increases the nutrient level of the soil (ii) It ensures balsnced ration for livestocks while grazing (iii) It reduces cost of feeding livestocks (v) It reduces the attack of pests ================================= (5a) (i) Balanced diet: This is a diet consisting balanced amounts in proper proportions of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water intake for healthy growth and for efficient daily activities and functions.
(ii) Maintenance ration: This is the amount of feed given to an animal that are just enough to enable the animal carry out its important functions like respiration, digestion, regulation of body temperature. It does not allow for an increase or decrease in body weight or production.
(iii) Production ration: This is the amount of nutrients supplied to animals in excess of those needed for maintenance. The excess nutrients are thus used for productive purposes such as meat, egg and milk production. The quantity and quality determine the magnitude of increase in production.
(iv) Malnutrition: This refers to deficiencies or excesses in nutrient intake, imbalance of essential nutrients or impaired nutrient utilization.
(5b) (PICK ANY SIX) (i) Retarded growth. (ii) Low production of eggs. (iii) Decrease in milk production. (iv) High mortality rate in young animals. (v) Presence of farm animal diseases. (vi) Physical deformities. (vii) Weight loss/emaciation. (viii) Poor appearance.
(5c) (i) Shading (ii) Mulching (iii) Weeding (iv) Watering
Answer All Questions In This Section
(1a) Vital statistics is accumulated data gathered on live births, deaths, migration, foetal deaths, marriages and divorces.
(1b) (i) Quantities and rates of births (ii) Characteristics of births
(iii) Quantities and rates of deaths
(2) (i) Femur (ii) Patella (iii) Tibia
Sewage is a liquid containing wastes from households, industrial and agricultural activities discharged into water.
=MALES= (i) Testes and scrotum grows (ii) Production of sperm (iii) Broadening of the shoulder (iv) No menstruation occur (v) The voice deepens
=FEMALES= (i) Breasts grow (ii) Production of egg (iii) Broadening of the hips (iv) Menstruation occurs (v) The voice becomes sweet
(4b) (i) Both systems have gonads that produce sperm or egg (ii) Both systems experience maturation of their reproductive organs
(iii) Both produce an increasing number of hormones at puberty
(5a) (i) It prevents excessive bleeding (ii) It prevents the entry of bacteria and other pathogens into the body
(5b) (i) Food mixes with saliva and the enzyme amylase (found in saliva), which breaks down starch into sugars.(ii) The tongue helps in thorough mixing of food with saliva, which helps in swallowing of food called as a bolus.
(6a) Marriage is a formal union , social and legal contract between two individuals that unites their lives legally, economically, and emotionally
(6b) (i) For companionship (ii) To signify a life-long commitment
(ii) For legal status and financial security
Answer Two Questions Only
(7a) Epidemiology is the branch of medical science that investigates all the factors that determine the presence or absence of diseases and disorders.
(7bi) A causative agent is an organism or chemical that is responsible for the development of a disease.
(7bii) Transmission route is the pathway of causative agents from a source to infection of a susceptible host
(7biii) Susceptible host is the organism that will feel the effects of the infectious disease that has traveled through the chain of infection.
(7c) The vertebral column, also known as the spinal column, is the central axis of the skeleton in all vertebrates. The vertebral column provides attachments to muscles, supports the trunk, protects the spinal cord and nerve roots and serves as a site for haemopoiesis
(7d) (i) Stress (ii) Smoking (iii) Alcohol consumption
Orthodox medicine is a system of medicine in which medical doctors, nurses and other healthcare professionals deliver treatment for diseases and their symptoms to the patients through the use of pharmaceuticals or surgery.
(8a) Food nutrients are the substances in food which drive biological activity, and are essential for the human body.
(8b) (i) Builds all parts of the body (ii) Produces energy for the body (iii) Reduces the risk of chronic disease (iv) Maintains the immune system
(8c) (i) Consumer health is a social movement which preserves the right and strength of the consumer. Consumer health encourages seller and merchant to protect health of consumer by providing quality product and services.
(ii) Consumer education is the preparation of an individual to be capable of making informed decisions when it comes to purchasing products in a consumer culture.
(8di) (i) Right to safety (ii) Right to Information (iii) Right to value for money (iv) Right to consumer education
(8dii) (i) Barrier method (ii) Hormonal contraception (iii) Emergency contraception
(iv) Long-acting reversible contraception
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(6a) A local government authority is an organization that is officially responsible for all the public services and facilities in a particular area.
(6b) (i) Statutory functions: The local governments were given specific statutory functions to perform.
(ii) Single tier: All the local governments were made all- purpose single tier local government.
(iii) Appointment: There was the appointment of full-time chairmen and supervisory councillors.
(iv) Condition of service: The condition of service oflocal government staffwasunified with that of their counter-parts in state and federal civil service.
(v) Grants: Federal and state governments were made to give grants to local governments. ==============================
(7) (i)Preservation of existing cultural values: The system of indirect rule was a success in the North because it preserved the existing cultural values of the native and also assisted in improving them to gradually accept or adapt to a modern system of government.
(ii) The imposition and collection of tax: The administration of indirect rule took the issue of tax collection very serious which was already in existence in the North.
(iii) Illiteracy: Majority of the people in the North were illiterate as such they could not resist or challenge the colonial imposition or rule of the foreign power.
(iv) Centralization of power: The administrative system in the North was highly centralised and it was thus adopted and accepted by the British through the use of the indirect rule.
(v) Obedience to traditional authorities: Northern had great respect to constituted authorities and that made it easy for the indirect rule to be used to govern the people.
(vi) Training of local administrators: The indirect rule aided in the training of the local leaders in the North in its method of administration. ==============================
(2) (i) State of emergency: When a state of emergency is declared in a country or state, citizens will find some of their rights denied in order to restore peace and order.
(ii) Custom and tradition: The application of the rule of law may be limited in some cases when the custom and tradition of the people must be respected and preserved.
(iii) Diplomatic immunity: Due to the fact that ambassadors and high commissioners enjoy some immunities and cannot be prosecuted or punished in the country where they are serving also pose a great limitation to the application of the rule of law.
(iv) Legislative immunity: This also undermines the application of the rule of law due to the fact that the members of the parliament cannot be sued or prosecuted for any false or libellous statement made in the house whereas an ordinary man on the street can be punished for the same statement.
(v) Delegated legislation: The delegation of law making power to some bodies other than the legislature often brings about complexity of law and abuse of such power which may lead to violation of fundamental human rights of the citizens even without the opportunity of seeking redress.
(vi) The type of government: The type and system of government practiced in a country will determine the degree of the application of the rule of law. In a country where military or unitary system of government is adopted, there will be minimum application of the rule of law. ==============================
(1a) A bill is a proposed law under consideration of the legislative arm which later be passed into law by the approval of the executive.
(1b) (i) First reading: This is the first stage of passing bill into law which requires the presentation of the drafted bill to the parliament. The bill is read to the hearing of the members of the legislature by the clerk of the house. After the title of the bill is read and there is no opposition, it will be printed into leaflets and distributed among the members for proper assessment before the second reading.
(ii) Second reading: This is the stage which the bill will be deliberated and debated on. The presenter of the bill will be invited to explain the purpose of the bill and defend it. After which, the members will vote the bill to the next stage. If the bill receives majority votes, it will move to the next stage and if not, it will end without any amendment.
(iii) The committee stage: Here, the bill is passed to one or more committees in the house for necessary amendment and discussion. There are different committees in the house which deliberate on different matters.
(iv) Report stage: This is the stage in which the various findings about the bill will be documented during the of amendment. The findings or reports about the bill will be read by the speaker or Chairman of the standing committees.
(v) Third reading: This is the last stage in which proper assessment and scrutinization will be carried out to ensure that the bill is properly amended. During this stage, another and final vote will be carried out before the bill is presented to the executive for approval. Once the assent is given to the bill by the executive president, then it bcomes law ==============================
(5) (i) Free and fair election: Democracy is Characterised by regular and periodic free and fair election. In a democratic state, the citizens cast their votes and elect those that will represent their interest in various political offices as a means of indirect participation in running the affairs of the state but in a military system, it is devoid of free and fair election but selection by the supreme leader.
(ii) Application of rule of law: Democracy recognizes the equality of all citizens or classes of people in the country regardless of their economic, political or social status as it is expressed by the rule of law and due process.
(iii) Existence of political parties: Democracy recognizes the establishment and existence of political parties preferably multiple party system in which individual parties present candidates who compete for power in the general election.
(iv) Existence and respect of fundamental human right: In a democratic system of government, fundamental human rights are recognized, protected and respected in all aspects of life which is not respected in the military system.
(iv) Supremacy of the constitution: Democracy recognizes the supremacy of the constitution which determine the operationa and functions of all sectional groups and organizations in the state, showing that nobody is above the law but the constitution. ==============================
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