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Neco Economics Answers 2022 4th August

Neco Economics Objective And Essay Answers 2022: Neco Economics Objective And Essay Answers 2022 for 4th August 2022 with questions 100% verified official questions and answers for senior secondary schools. NECO Economics Objective and Essay Questions and Answers 2022 (%100 Sure, NECO Economics Objective and Essay Questions, and Answers 2022




(i) Population of children = 162/360 × 140 = 63million

(ii) Population of old people = 108/360 × 140 = 42million

(iii) Active population = 90/360 × 140 = 35million

(iv) Dependent population = Population of children + Population of old people = 63,000,000 + 42,000,000
= 105,000,000
= 105million

(i) The demand for goods and services required by the youths and old ones because they form the large percentage of the population

(ii) If the items required by the young and old ones are not produced locally, there will be increased importation and resultant strain in the balance of payment

(iii) Low level of savings and investment because of the high dependency ratio

(iv) Increased taxation and borrowing by government to meet increased demand for consumable items because the taxable population is small

(v) High prospective labour force because if the large proportion of young ones
(NO 2)

Wants are the insatiable desire or need by human beings to own goods or services that give satisfaction. Human wants or needs are many and are usually described as insatiable because the means of satisfying them are limited or scarce.

Scarcity is the limited supply of resources which are used for the satisfaction of unlimited wants. Scarcity is the inability of human beings to provide themselves with all the things they desire or want. These resources are scarce relative to their demand.

Choice refers to a system of selecting or choosing one out of several alternatives. Choices arise as a result of numerous human wants and the scarcity of the resources used in satisfying these wants. Choice, therefore, arises as a result of scarcity of resources.

Scale of preference refers to a list of unsatisfied wants arranged in the order of their relative importance. It is a list showing the order in which we want to satisfy our wants arranged in order of priority. On the scale of preference, the most pressing wants come first and the least pressing ones come last.

Opportunity cost is an expression of cost in terms of forgone alternatives. It is the satisfaction of one’s want at the expense of another want. It refers to the wants that are left unsatisfied to satisfy another more pressing need.


(i) Allocation of resources:
The study of economics enables the government to allocate scarce resources to various sectors of the economy.

(ii) Development of programmes:
It also enables the government to develop certain programmes that are beneficial to the people.

(iii) Rational decision:
Economics enables individuals to choose certain wants among the numerous needs, using their scarce resources.

(iv) Preparation of budget:
Economics assists the government to determine the expected income and expenditure of a country.

(v) Solutions to economic problems:
Economics also enables individuals, firms and governments to solve their problems using various principles of the subject

(vi) Production:
The study of economics assists us to determine what to produce when to produce, factors of production and how to produce goods and services required to satisfy human wants.

(vii) Provision of basic tools:
The study of economics provides basic tools for analysing economic problems among individuals, firms and governments.

(viii) Maximisation of profits:
Economics enables traders and businessmen to maximise their profits using economic principles in their business.
Monopoly may be defined as a market situation where there is only one producer or supplier of a particular good or service that has no substitute. The monopolist has the power to influence the price of goods to his favour. The goods sold by a monopolist are normally differentiated.

(i) Act of Parliament: This is a legal instrument by the government, conferring a special monopoly on some organisations to produce or supply certain goods or services, e.g. public corporations.

(ii) Patent Law: This law confers on a firm special privilege to protect its new invention and it tends to scare away other competitors.

(iii) Level of technology: When a firm develops a high level of technology, which makes goods cheaper, this may force other competitors out of production.

(iv) Effective advertising: The success of a firm in effective advertising may force other competitors out of business.
Co-operative society is defined as a voluntary business organisation in which a group of individuals with common interests pool their resources together to promote the economic welfare of their members in the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.

(i) Production co-operative society:
Producers co-operative society is formed by producers of similar products who organise co-operative production and undertake joint marketing of their products on a wholesale or retail basis. They share useful information among members.

(ii) Consumers co-operative society: Consumers co-operative society is owned and operated by a group of ultimate consumers who pool their resources together to purchase goods and services in large quantities and distribute them mainly to its members. The operating policies used are open membership, democratic control, limited interest paid on capital invested, and proportinate dividends based on their level of purchases or patronage.

(iii) Wholesale co-operative society: Wholesale co-operative society is formed by small-scale wholesalers who purchase goods in bulk from the manufacturers at reasonable prices and sell in small quantities to retail co-operatives. They can raise large sums of money to finance wholesale purchases when they come together. As an entity, they have the better bargaining power to purchase in bulk from the manufacturers.
Demand may be defined as the ability and willingness to buy a specific quantity of goods and services at a given price and at a particular period of time

(i) Population
(ii) Income of the consumer
(iii) Changes in taste of consumer
(iv) Period of festivals

(i) Population: Increase in population in an area will lead to high demand for commodities and vice versa

(ii) Income of the consumer: The higher the Income of a consumer, the higher the quantity of commodities that he/she will demand and vice versa

(iii) Changes in taste of consumer: If consumers change their taste for a particular commodity, the demand for that commodity will also change

(iv) Period of festivals: It is well known that people demand for more of specific commodities during certain festivals
An Industry can be defined as a group of firm producing similar product and under separate administration of management

(i) Tax Concessions to pioneer Industries: The federal government give tax Concession to pioneer Industries for a specified number of years during which the industry will not pay tax
(ii) Protection of infact industries: the government protect infact industries through high import duties and outright ban or placement of quotas or imported commodities which compete with those of home industries
(iii) Development of infrastructure facilities: Government has also embark on construction of better road networks especially the express roads efficient telecommunications, electricity and water supply system
(iv) Establishment of Industrial Estate: The government should also Establish industrial estate and thus reduce the problems of locating industries in urban areas
(v) Establishment of Nigerian Enterprises Promotion Decree: the Nigerian Enterprises of promotion decree of 1972 was set up by the Federal military government in an attempt to transfer part of the profits. Generated in Nigeria to the local people

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Entire labour force = 30+37+19+12.2+16.1+10.8+15.6+19+10.3 = 170million

(i) Primary sector ==> Mining + Fish farming + food crop production

% of primary sector = (16.1+10.8+15.6)/170 ×100%
= 12.5/170 × 100%
= 25%

(ii) Secondary sector ==> Shoe production + Fish processing + Baking

% of primary sector = (30+19+19)/170 × 100%
= 40%

(iii) Tertiary (%) = 100% – (40+25)%
= 35%

Ratio = 16.1/30 = 161:300

% Warehousing = 12.2/170 × 100%
= 7.2%

(i) Mixed economy
(ii) Government and individuals can feature in the three sectors
Economies of scale is the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation, and are typically measured by the amount of output produced. A decrease in cost per unit of output enables an increase in scale.

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(i) Technical Economies of Scale
(ii) Purchasing Economies of Scale
(iii) Managerial Economies of Scale

(i) Competitors
(ii) Workforce
(iii) Transport availability
Product retailing is the process when the dealing are based on tangible goods and usually a relationship with the buyer develops overtime when the buyer visits the product retailer frequently over a period of time.

(i)Breaking of bulk: The Wholesaler serves as a bulk breaker to the manufacturer to enable the retailer buy the goods
(ii)Price stability: They help to prevent price fluctuation by stocking the goods until they are demanded.
(iii)Information dissemination: Since the Wholesaler is more closer to the retailers and the consumers, he knows what they want and the complaints that has been made on the goods of the manufacturer.

(i)Packaging problems: The packaging of goods is not standardized. This may result in damage or loss in transit.

(ii) Inadequate transport facilities: The poor transport system also affects commodity distribution and marketing in the country. The roads are so bad that commodities sustain great damage due to accidents.

(iii) Long chain of distribution: There are too many middlemen. The numerous links along the chain of distribution make the price of commodities to increase considerably.
Domestic trade refers to the exchange of goods or services within an individual country or territory. In this type of trade scenario, the market is constrained by the borders of that country, so that all products must be bought and sold by people living within the domestic market. WHILE External trade is the buying and selling of goods take place across the national boundaries of different countries. In other words It is also known as Foreign trade or International trade. On the basis of sale and purchase of goods and services.

Terms of trade is the ratio between the index of export prices and the index of import prices. If the export prices increase more than the import prices, a country has a positive terms of trade, as for the same amount of exports, it can purchase more imports. WHILE Balance of trade is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of a country’s imports for a given period. In other words sometimes the balance of trade between a country’s goods and the balance of trade between its services are distinguished as two separate figures.


(i)Rapid Economic Development; High outflow of foreign exchange to meet import demands like technology, machines, and equipment can lead to balance of payment deficit.

(ii)Inflation; Sustained rise in a country’s prices can often make foreign products cheaper, leading to a high volume of imports.

(ii)Political Disturbance; Unstable tax structures, change in government, etc. can lead to a loss in foreign investment, and give way for Balance or payment deficit.

(iv)Demonstration effect; Most of the developing countries get influenced by developed nations and start adopting the foreign pattern of consumption. In other words this results in a sharp rise in imports leading to a deficit in the Balance of Payment.

X is demand curve
Y is supply curve
Z is supply curve

The supply curve shift from Y to Z

Before the introduction of subsidy
$15×20 = $300

After the introduction of subsidy
$10×40 = $400

Percentage increase = $400-$300 = $100
100/300 × 100/1 = 33.3%

% change in quantity demanded/ % change in price = 100/33.3 = 3.0

% change in quantity demanded= change/old × 100/1
= 20/20 × 100/1
= 100%

% change in price = change/old × 100/1
= 5/15 × 100/1 = 33.3%

It is elastic because the coefficient is greater than 1


Demand schedule is the table that shows the relationship between quantity demanded and price of goods.


It can be defined as the list showing the number of quantities of a commodity demanded at various prices.

(i). Effective demand: this is the type of demand which is supported with the ability and willingness to pay.

(ii). Composite Demand: Demand is composite when a commodity can be used for more than one purpose

(iii). Derived Demand: It occurs when a commodity is wanted not for the satisfaction it yields but for the reason that they are useful in producing another commodity.


(i)Labour force: Labour force can be defined as the total number of persons available to supply the labour for the production of economic goods and services. In other words, it is the total number of people of working age in a country who are able and willing by law to work.

(ii)Efficiency of labour: Efficiency of labour may be defined as the ability of labour to increase output without increasing the quantity of labour. Increase in efficiency is usually expressed in terms of increase in output of labour within a shorter period of time without any fall in the quality of goods and services produced.

(i)Age structure of the population: The structure of a country’s population is a significant determinant of the size of the labour force. The lower the dependant people, the higher the supply of labour and vice versa. In otherword, the labour force will increase in a country with a greater number of its people between the ages of 18 and 65 years.

(ii)Role of women in the society: In some societies, women are usually prevented from engaging in gainful employment because of religious belief, social and cultural factors and this affects the size of labour force.

(iii)Number of working hours and working days: The number of working hours per day and the number of working days in a week or a year also helps to determine the supply of labour.

(iv) The number of disabled: When the number of disabled persons is high especially within the working population, the supply for labour will be low.

(v) The number of people unwilling to work: There are certain number of able bodied people who are also between the age bracket of 18 and 65 years but are unwilling to work. If their population is high, it will affect the size of supply of labour

(vi) Migration: The rate of migration can also affect the size of labour force. If the rate at which the working population leaves a country is higher than the rate at which people come in, it will lead to reduction in the supply of labour.

(vii)Trade union activities: The activities of trade union may also affect the supply of supply. For example, when a long period of training is imposed on a certain trade, this may discourage people from engaging in such trade or profession leading to a reduction in supply of labour.

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(viii)Government policies: Certain government policies can affect the supply of labour. E.g. specific laws are made to exclude children and women from working in ministries. This can reduce the supply of labour to that area or field.


No 6a

i. Specific tax
A specific tax is a fixed amount of tax placed on a particular good. It is also referred to as a per-unit tax, and the tax will depend on the quantity sold (not price).

ii. Value-added tax (VAT) : is a flat tax levied on an item. It is similar to a sales tax in some respects, except that with a sales tax, the full amount owed to the government is paid by the consumer at the point of sale. With a VAT, portions of the tax amount are paid by different parties to a transaction.


(i) A Merchant Bank is that Mortgage is a bank or company which offers a loan with their own funds or from warehouse lenders WHILE A merchant bank is an institution which provides the services of finance, underwriting, offering business loan and advice or consultancy on finance.

(ii) Commercial Bank is the bank organized to perform public utility banking services, such as accepting deposits, lending money, etc. On the other hand, development bank refers to a multi-purpose financial undertaking set up to provide financial aid to the industrial and agricultural sector, to encourage development.

(i) Agency functions: commercial banks are already agents of the banking system, but they can also be personal agents to their customers. An agent is an individual or institution that carries out activities, in this case, financial operations, on behalf of the principal (who is the customer) for a few known as a commission.

(ii) Credit Creation: commercial banks are perhaps the only financial institutions with this unique function. Commercial banks create credit through accepting deposits and providing loans, pushing money into the economy.

(iii) Transfer of funds: the transfer of funds from a customer’s account to another account is another vital function of banks. Fund transfer is a valid means of paying for transactions, as well as other financial activities. Transfer of funds can be carried out through several ways such as drafts, standing orders, cheques, USSD platforms, and electronic banking.

(iv) Provision of loans: besides accepting deposits, another function of commercial banks is the provision of loans. The provision of funds to those who require them for transactions is a vital role commercial banks play. Nowadays, customers can now have access to instant loans from commercial banks.


Economic integration is an arrangement among nations that typically includes the reduction or elimination of trade barriers and the coordination of monetary and fiscal policies.

(i)Political Instability in member states; This results in different approach to ECOWAS issues by leaders of member states.

(ii)Inadequate finance: Many members states do not fulfill their financial obligation as at and when due. This is crippling the effective operation

(iii)Colonial linkage to erstwhile master; is another factor affecting ECOWAS. Francophone
nations that are members of ECOWAS may not lend their
weight to matters of the organisation that will negatively
affects France.

(i)Road construction between big cities. The highways Lagos-Abidjan, Nouakchott-Lagos have made commuting much easier that it was before. The road network Elubo – Alflao – Lagos is one of the achievements.

(iii)The relations between the Anglophone and Francophone have been stabilized. It has been done thanks to the ECOWAS passport. It has significantly eased the movement of people within those areas.

(iii)Telephone network for the member states. Nowadays, interconnection is available for all countries of the African Union.

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