Waec Agricultural Science Answers 2021: Waec Agricultural Science Questions and Answers – See all the answers and questions on Agricultural Science for this year’s AUGUST/SEPTEMBER Waec Agricultural Science exams Expo here.
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(i) Individual method
(ii) Group method
(iii) Mass media
(i) It gives the poultry farmers proper understanding of the disease.
(ii) It will enhance practising
(i) Inability to reach many poultry farmers
(ii) It is a time consuming method
(iii) It may be very expensive
(i) Inadequate farm input
(ii) Inadequate fund
(iii) Inadequate skilled labour
(iv) Problem of distribution
(v) Inadequate farm machines
(i) Red Sokoto
(ii) West African dwarf
(iv) Nigerian dwarf goat
(i) Granting farmers loan
(ii) Establishment of agencies like Nigeria Agriculture and Co-operative Bank(N.A.C.B)
(i) Establishment of adult education for farmers
(ii) Sensitizing farmers on importance of being educated
(i)Employment of extension officer to sensitize farmers
(ii) Funding of extension programmes
(i)Government should make policies that will favour farmers and discourage foreign counterparts
(ii) Government should create a good marketing channels for distribution of farm produce.
= Disc plough
(i) does not have numerous small disc
(ii) has no scrappers
(iii) no drawbar
= Disc Harrow
(i) consist of numerous small disc
(ii) has scrappers
(iii) has drawbar
(i) It destroy soil structure
(ii) It may results in erosion
(iii) It causes compaction due to its heavy weight
(iv) It affect the fertility of the soil
Selective exploration is the process of cutting or harvesting only mature trees in a forest.
it is a way of concentrating certain selected species of timber in a forest reserve. The system allows for the harvesting of older trees while the younger ones remain as cover to the surface of the forest.
(i) It ensures the concentration of selected species of timber in a forest.
(ii) It protects the soil from erosion.
(iii) It ensures the continuous supply of timber.
(iv) It serves as a revenue base for the government.
Field pest of crops can be described as an organism, whether plants or animals which causes economic damage to crop plants, livestock etc. WHILE storage pest of crops are insect or other animals that damage or destroys stored foods or other stored valuable organic matters.
(ii) cater pillar insect
(i)Mulch planting beds with newspaper, leaves, bark, or wood chips. Mulches retain soil moisture and improve soil quality.
(ii)Water your plantings with a soaker hose or a drip irrigation system.
(iii)Use a timing device with any watering system.
(iv)Use “wasted” water for your plants.
(i) F – 22
(ii) H – 2.3
(ii) Hides and skin
PRUNING OF COCOA TREES:
(i) It optimizes the balance of vegetative and reproductive growth
(ii) It increases the efficacy of fertilization and pest control
(iii) It helps in prevention and treatment of disease.
(iv) It reduces risk of failure from dead or weak branches
PARBOILING OF PADDY RICE:
(i) To increase the total and head yield of the paddy
(ii) To prevent the loss of nutrients during milling
(iii) To salvage wet or damaged paddy
(iv) To prepare the rice according to the requirements of consumers
(i) By use of chemicals such as herbicides
(ii) By weeding
(iii) By cultural practices
(iv) By use of good tillage operation
(vi) Use of resistance varieties
(i) They are used to enhance the beauty of a garden or home.
(ii) They are grown for food. Some chilies are grown as ornamental plants. An example is capsicums.
(iii) Some ornamentals can be used for medicinal purposes.Example of ornamental herbs are rosemary, mexican marigold and lemon grass.
(iv) They absorb carbon dioxide from the air and output oxygen thereby creating cleaner air.
(v) Fallen leaves of ornamental plants makes good mulch and compost.
(i) It determines whether or not the soil is well developed
(ii) It takes shorter time in the formation of immature soil
(iii) It also takes a long time for plant to decay and become part of the soil
(i) It provides water for hydrolysis
(ii) It helps to break down some parent rocks to form soil
(iii) It enhances vegetative growth of plants whose roots cause further breakdown
(iii) PARENT MATERIAL
(i) They constitute major materials from which soil is formed
(ii) It determines the chemical composition of the soil formed
(iii) It’s hardness affects the rate of soil formation
(i) Non-uniform of crops
(ii) Most exhaustive crops should be followed by less exhaustive e
(iii) Deep rooted crops should be succeeded by shallow rooted crops
(iv) Leguminous crops should be grown after non-leguminous crops
(i) It serves as cover crops
(ii) It serves as food for livestock
(iii) It is used as green manure
(iv) It helps to prevent erosion
(v) It is used for roofing farmstead
Waec Agricultural Science Answers 2021 for 23rd September 2021
Thursday, 23rd September 2021
- Agricultural Science 2 (Essay) 2:00 pm. – 4:10 pm.
- Agricultural Science 1 (Objective) 4:10 pm. – 5:00 pm.
EXAM TYPE: Waec 2021
SUBJECT: Agricultural Science
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2021 Waec Agricultural Science Answers [20th September], Waec Agricultural Science Questions, Waec Agricultural Science 2021 Answers
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Below is the Official Waec 2021 Agricultural Science Syllabus
WAEC Syllabus For Agricultural Science 2021/2022 | Download WAEC Agric Syllabus PDF
This syllabus has been designed to portray Agricultural Science as an applied science with an emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge and skills associated with the content. A general review of the Junior Secondary School Agricultural Science syllabus is presumed.
Candidates will be expected to answer questions on all the topics set out in the column headed syllabus. The notes therein are intended to indicate the scope of the questions which will be set, but they are not to be considered as an exhaustive list of limitations and illustration.
CHECKOUT: Waec 2021 Agric Practical Specimen
Every school offering Agricultural Science must:
(i) establish a farm where crops are grown;
(ii) keep at least one species of ruminant and one nonruminant;
(iii) establish a fish pond where feasible.
Candidates should have practical notebooks which should contain records of individual activities based on laboratory and individual observations carried out on the school farms, field trips and also records of specimens collected. In order to enhance effective teaching/learning process and better performance of candidates, continuous assessment of candidates is recommended.
Since the main objectives of the Senior Secondary School Agricultural Science Curriculum are to:
- stimulate and sustain students’ interest in agriculture;
- enable students acquire functional knowledge and practical skills to prepare them for further studies and occupation in agriculture;
it is recommended that the study of Agricultural Science in the Senior Secondary School be supplemented by visits to well established government and private experimental and commercial farms, agricultural research institutes and other institutions related to agriculture.
There will be three papers: Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.
PAPER 1:Will consist of fifty multiple choice questions to be answered within 50 minutes for 50 marks.
PAPER 2:Will consist of six essay questions with each drawn from at least two themes in the syllabus. Candidates will be required to answer five of the questions within 2 hours 10 minutes for 90 marks.
PAPER 3:Will be a practical paper for school candidates and alternative to practical paper for private candidates. It will consist of four questions, all of which should be answered within 1½ hours for 60 marks.
|A. BASIC CONCEPTS
Assessment would include incidence of pests and diseases, vagaries of weather, labour and government policy.
Assessment would cover past and present programmes e.g. OFN, ADP, Farm Settlement, Agricultural Sector Rehabilitation Project (ASRP) and National Aids Coordination Secretariat.
Examples of NGOs West African Rice Development Association (WARDA), International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA), International Crop Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) would be assessed.
Assessment would include land use Act (Decree), Land Reforms in West Africa.
B. AGRICULTURAL ECOLOGY
(iv) soil pollution.
Interaction of farm crops/animals with other components of the ecosystem in farm settings such as mono or sole cropping system, mixed cropping system, mixed farming system, fish ponds and forest (rain or savannah) would be assessed.
Assessment would include of uses of land for aquaculture, forestry and apiculture.
Non-agricultural uses of land such as health centres, church/mosque, mining, recreational centres, schools and markets would be assessed.
(a) Agro-based industries and raw materials:
(b) Relationship between agriculture and industries:
Assessment would include other agro-based industries and raw materials e.g. leather industry – hides and skin, canning industry – meat and fish.
Assessment would include other relationship between agriculture and industries.
soil pH, soil texture, soil structure, soil type etc.
Assessment would cover identification, description and examples of rock types.
Assessment would cover how igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are formed.
The role played by each factor in soil formation would be assessed.
The meaning, importance, identification and description of each horizon of the soil profile would be assessed.
Assessment would cover types of soil and their separation into sand, silt and clay fractions, water holding capacity, porosity, capillarity, consistency etc.
Determination of soil pH, causes and correction of soil acidity/alkalinity would be assessed.
Macro-nutrients such as N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Micro–nutrients such as Zn, Fe, Mo, Co, Bo, Cu would be assessed.
Types of fertilizers and methods of fertilizer application would be assessed.
Assessment would include the description and importance of nitrogen, carbon and water cycles.
C. AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING/MECHANIZATION
(vii) combine harvester etc.
(vi) sprayers etc.
Ways of minimizing land/pond pollution would be assessed.
Assessment would include identification, description and uses of each of the tools.
Assessment would include the meaning, uses/functions and identification of different parts of each of the farm machinery and implements. Engineering details are however not required.
Assessment would include precautionary measures in the use of farm machinery.
Mechanized agricultural operations: ploughing, harrowing, planting, harvesting, milking etc would be assessed.
Possible ways of improving agricultural mechanization such as developing less expensive machines and establishing agricultural engineering schools for personnel would be assessed.
Engineering details are not required.
D. CROP PRODUCTION
botanical names and common names of the crop, varieties/types, climatic and soil requirements, land preparation, methods of propagation, planting date, seed rate, spacing, sowing depth and nursery requirements, cultural practices: supplying, thinning,
manuring and fertilizer requirement and application, weeding, pests and disease control, harvesting, processing and storage of at least one representative crop from each of the following crop groupings:
cowpea, soya bean, pigeon pea.
Assessment would cover site selection, location of structures and sketching of farm layout.
A general knowledge of husbandry of all the crops listed is presumed.
Assessment would include the botanical names and characteristics of common grasses and legumes used for grazing livestock.
Assessment would include the meaning of crop improvement.
Definition of some genetic terms: characters or traits, chromosomes, genes, Mendel’s 1st and 2nd laws would be assessed.
F. ORNAMENTAL PLANTS
(i) bedding plants (mostly flowering plants);
(ii) hedging plants;
(iii) lawn grasses etc.
G. CROP PROTECTION
transmission, symptoms, prevention and control
Common tree species suitable for agro-forestry practices would be assessed.
Assessment would cover identification of various types of ornamental plants.
The common and botanical names would be assessed.
Importance of each method and examples of ornamental plants propagated through such method would be assessed.
Reasons for carrying out maintenance operations: watering, mulching, pruning etc would be assessed.
|measures of the diseases of the following crops:
(i) biting and chewing;
(ii) piercing and sucking;
field and storage pests, life cycle, economic importance, nature of damage, preventive and control measures of the following major insect-pests of crops:
Assessment would include at least two fungal, two viral, two bacterial and one nematode diseases of the crops chosen from the list.
Nature of damage, economic importance, preventive and control measures of each of the non-insect pests would be assessed
Common and botanical names would be assessed.
|H. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
(i) habitat – terrestrial and aquatic.
(ii) uses – food, protection, pet etc.
(c) Systems of farm animals e.g.
digestive system, circulatory system, respiratory system.
(ii) relative humidity; and
(iii) light on:
growth, reproduction, milk production, egg production etc.
Drawing and labeling of parts of farm animals would be assessed.
Identification of important organs and their functions would be assessed.
Assessment would include the digestive system of poultry, differences between the monogastric and ruminant digestive systems.
Assessment would include oestrus cycle, heat period, mating, gestation period, parturition, lactation, colostrum, mammary glands, signs of heat, ovulation etc.
(d) Methods of rangeland and pasture improvement:
controlled stocking, rotational grazing, use of fertilizers, introduction of legumes, reseeding, weed control, burning, pest and disease control.
Assessment would include extensive, intensive and semi-intensive systems of management and record keeping in livestock management.
The biochemical details of the nutrients are not required.
Assessment would include the types of diet for the various classes of animals, their characteristics and supplementary feeding.
Assessment would include malnutrition related conditions such as ketosis, rickets.
(i) viral-foot and mouth, rinderpest, newcastle;
(ii) bacterial – anthrax,
(iii) fungal – aspergillosis, ringworm, scabies;
Assessment would include differences and similarities between breeds (local, exotic and cross/hybrid) and performance of animals.
The economic importance of the diseases would be assessed.
(i) meaning of parasite.
(ii) types of parasites.
(iii) mode of transmission, life cycle, economic importance and control of the following selected livestock parasites:
endoparasites – tapeworm, liverfluke and roundworm;
ectoparasites – ticks, lice.
quarantine, inoculation/immunization, hygiene, breeding for resistance etc.
(i) fish farming;
(ii) shrimp farming;
(iii) crab farming.
a fish pond.
Assessment would include aeration, stocking, feeding, harvesting, processing and preservation of fish.
(i) indigenous bees;
(ii) exotic bees.
(i) traditional method;
(ii) modern bee keeping.
bee hives, hive tools like suits,
smokers, jungle boots, brushes
(i) locate apiaries far from human dwellings;
(ii) put warning symbols near
I. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AND EXTENSION
(c) scale of preference;
(d) law of diminishing returns.
(c) labour – characteristics and classification;
(d) management or entrepreneur.
Rural-urban migration and how it affects labour availability in agricultural production would be assessed.
(i) classification based on length of time:
– short-term credit;
– medium term credit;
– long-term credit.
(ii) classification based on source of credit:
– loan in-cash;
– loan in-kind.
Assessment would include the meaning of farm management
(i) meaning of capital market, institutions that deal with medium and long term loans for agricultural business.
(ii) institutions involved in the capital market
(iii) sources of funds for the capital market:
(iv) roles of capital markets in agricultural business:
(i) inventory records;
(ii) production records;
(iii) income and expenditure records;
(c) Designing farm records
Assessment would include the meaning of agri-business.
(d) Farm accounts:
(i) expenditure/ purchases account;
(ii) income/sales account;
(iii) profit and loss account;
(iv) balance sheet.
(iii) processing etc.
agricultural produce .
(i) specific enterprise insurance e.g. crop insurance, livestock insurance;
Assessment would include terms such as salvage value, appreciation, farm budget, depreciation, inventory, their importance and their uses in calculating profit and loss of farm items like crops, livestock, farm machinery and tools in the farm.
Advantages and disadvantages of the marketing agents would be assessed.
|(ii) farm vehicle insurance;
(iii) fire disaster insurance or machines and buildings insurance;
(iv) life assurance (farmers, farm workers and farmers’ household).
(i) individual contact methods;
(ii) group contact methods etc.
Qualities of a good extension worker would be assessed.
|PRACTICAL AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE
A. AGRICULTURAL ECOLOGY
(b) Common types of chemical
|Soil samples are to be examined for texture by manual feeling of wet and dry soil.
Examination of fertile and infertile soils and note distinguishing features of soils – colour, texture and structure, presence of organic matter and living things.
Simple description and identification of soil profile would be assessed.
Identification of common rock types: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic would be assessed.
Identification, methods and rates of application of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and compound fertilizers would be assessed.
| (d) Organic manure:
(i) green manure;
(ii) farm yard;
B. AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING/MECHANIZATION
|Identification, method of preparation and application of compost would be assessed.
Identification and uses of irrigation and drainage equipment e.g. watering can, sprinkler, pump, pipes would be assessed.
Assessment would include identification, description, uses and maintenance of various garden tools and equipment e.g. hoe, cutlass, garden trowel, hand fork, shovel, spade, rake, sickle, secateurs, shears, long handle hoe, pruner, budding knife, emasculator.
Assessment would include identification, description, uses and maintenance of tractor and animal-drawn implements e.g. ploughs, harrows, ridgers, planters, cultivators; identification of the major parts of the implements and their functions.
Assessment would include identification, description and uses of harvesting, processing and storage equipment e.g. dehuskers, shellers, winnowers, dryers, processors, graters, refrigerators, cutlasses, scythe, groundnut lifters.
Identification of the major components of the farm tractor, servicing and maintenance would be assessed.
Identification, uses and maintenance of the following horticultural tools: shears, dibber, pruning knife, secateurs, budding knife, measuring tapes, hand fork, hand trowel, hoe, fork would be assessed.
Identification, description, uses and care of livestock and fishing equipment e.g. waterers, feeders, milking machines, nets, hook and line, branding machine, egg candler would be assessed.
C. CROP PRODUCTION
storage organs of crops.
D. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
|Assessment would include identification, uses, and care of simple surveying equipment e.g. measuring tape, pins or arrows, ranging poles, plum bob, offset staff, compass, gunter’s chains, pegs, theodolite.
Identification of seeds, seedlings, fruits, storage organs and essential parts of the common crop plants, pasture grasses and legumes would be assessed.
Assessment would include identification and control of the main field and storage pests e.g. cotton stainer, yam beetles, weevils etc and the damage they cause to crops; identification of main diseases of crops, their causal agents and characteristic symptoms, prevention and control.
Assessment would include the following propagation methods – direct sowing, transplanting, layering, grafting and budding.
External features, mode of dispersal and methods of controlling weeds on the farm would be assessed.
Identification of breeds, methods of restraints, handling and grooming of farm animals would be assessed.
||Assessment would cover identification and functions of the major internal organs.
Identification of animal by-products e.g. hides and skin, fur, feather, horn would be assessed.
Assessment would cover the identification and uses of feeds and feed stuffs(e.g. fish meal, groundnut cake, rice bran); types of diets/ration.
Assessment would cover identification of common ectoparasites(e.g. ticks, lice) and endoparasites(e.g tapeworms, liver flukes, roundworms); the damage caused on their hosts and their control; and their life cycles.
Methods of prevention and control of diseases of farm animals, e.g. drugging, drenching, dipping, spraying and simple methods of farm sanitation would be assessed.
Assessment would cover the identification of equipment/tools used for routine management practices.
Methods of harvesting, processing and
preservation of fish would be assessed.
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