Waec Chemistry Practical Questions and Answers for 22nd Sept 2021

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Waec Chemistry Practical Answers 2021 for 21st September 2021

Tuesday, 21st September 2021

  • Chemistry 3 (Practical) (Alternative B) 9:30am. –11:30 am.(1stSet)
  • Chemistry 3 (Practical) (Alternative B) 12:00noon.–2:00pm.(2ndSet)

EXAM TYPE: Waec 2021

SUBJECT: Chemistry Practical

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(a) One burette of 50cm³ capacity
(b) One pipette either 20cm³ or 25cm³
All candidates at one center must use a pipette of the same volume. These should be clean and free from grease.
(c) The usual apparatus for titration.
(d) The usual apparatus for reagent for qualitative work including the following with all reagents appropriately labeled.

(i) Dilute sodium hydroxide solution
(ii) Dilute hydrochloric acid
(iii) Dilute trioxonitrate(V) acid
(iv) Barium chloride solution
(v) Acidified potassium dichromate solution
(vi) Aqueous ammonia
(vii) Lime water
(viii) Red and blue litmus papers
(ix) Dilute tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid.

(e) Spatula
(f) Filtration apparatus
(g) One Beaker
(h) One boiling tube
(i) Four test tubes
(j) Methyl orange as indicator
(k) Glass rod
(l) Wash bottle containing distilled/ diagnosed water
(m) Burning splint
(n) Watch glass
(o) Bunsen burner/ source heat
(p) Droppers
(q) Mathematical table/Calculator

(3) Each candidate should be supplied the following where n is the candidate’s serial number.
(a) 150cm³ of a solution HCL, in a corked flask or bottle labeled ‘An’. These should be all the same containing 9.0cm³ of concentrated HCL (about 36%) per dm³ of solution.

(b) 150cm³ of NaOH solution in a corked flask or bottle labeled ‘Bn’. These should all be the same containing 4.8g of NaOH per dm³ of solution.

(c) One spatulaful of a uniform mixture of CuSO4 and (NH4)2CO3 in a specimen bottle and corked immediately and labeled ‘Cn’. The components of the mixture should be in ratio 1:1 by mass.

(4) In all cases, more material may be issued if required.

(5) The actual concentration of ‘An’ and ‘Bn’ must be stated in the Supervisor Report Form. The candidate will assume that the concentrations are exactly as stated in the question paper.

(6) It should be noted that schools are not allowed to amend the information provided on the question paper or substitute any substance/solution for those specified in these instructions.

WAEC Chemistry Past Questions 2020 PAPER 2 (ESSAY)


1. Compound A consisting of carbon and hydrogen only. The compound was found to contain 80% carbon by mass.
(a) Calculate the empirical formula of compound A using the data above.
(b) The relative molecular mass of compound A was found to be 30.
Use this information to deduce the molecular formula of compound A.
[H = 1.00 C = 12.00]

2. (a) When calcium oxide and coke are heated in an electric furnace, the products are carbon (ii) oxide and calcium carbide (CaC2), write the equation for this reaction.

(b) The addition of water to calcium carbide leads to the formation of calcium hydroxide and ethyne. Write the equation for the production of ethyne.

3. Calculate the percentage by mass of silicon tetrachloride. [2 marks]
4. Ammonia, NH3, and phosphine, Ph3, are the hydrides of the first two elements in group 5.
(a) Draw a dot and cross diagram for the ammonia molecule. [2 marks]
(b) Sketch and explain the shape of the ammonia molecule. [3 marks]

5. The first ionization energy of chlorine is +1260KJmol-1.
(a) Define the term first ionization energy.
(b) State and explain the general trend in the values of the first ionization energy for the elements across the period, sodium to argon in the periodic table.

6. An aqueous solution has a pH of 4.0.
(a) (i) What is the hydrogen ion concentration of the solution?
(ii) What effect will it have on litmus paper?
(iii) Which of the following salt solutions would have the same effect on litmus? Give a reason for your answer. NH4Cl(aq); NaCl(aq) ; CH3OON(aq).
(b) (i) Differentiate between a fine chemical and a heavy chemical.
(ii) Name two sources of air pollution.
(iii) Suggest one way of reducing air pollution in cities


1. Isotopes of the same element have the same number of

A. Protons, neutrons, and electrons.
B. Protons and neutrons but a different number of electrons.
C. Protons and electrons but different number of neutrons.
D. Neutrons and electrons but a different number of protons.

2. Which type of chemical bond is formed by the transfer of electrons?
A. Covalent
B. Dative
C. Ionic
D. Metallic

3. The concentration of an aqueous solution is 5mg dm-3. Determine is the concentration in parts per million (ppm).
A. 500 ppm
B. 50 ppm
C. 10 ppm
D. 5 ppm

4. Consider the following species: H, H+, H-. What is the number of electrons in each of the species respectively?
A. 1, 0, 2
B. 0, 1, 2
C. 2, 1, 0
D. 1, 2, 0

5. Two electrons can occupy the same orbital if they have different
A. Angular momentum quantum numbers.
B. Magnetic quantum numbers.
C. Principal quantum numbers.
D. Spin quantum numbers.

6. What mass of NaOH is required to make 250 cm3 of 0.10mol/dm-3 solution? [Na = 23, O = 16, H = 1]
A. 1 g
B. 4 g
C. 8 g
D. 16 g

7. Which of the following substances is not a hydrocarbon?
A. Benzene
B. Butane
C. Ethyne
D. Ethanamide

8. A substance which ionizes completely into hydroxonium ions is a
A. Strong acid.
B. Strong base.
C. Weak acid.
D. Weak base.

9. Which of the following solutions is able to resist changes in pH when small amounts of an acid or a base is added?
A. Buffer solution
B. Neutral solution
C. Saturated solution
D. Supersaturated solution

10. Protein is a polymer formed from the linkage of
A. Amino acid molecules.
B. Fatty acid molecules.
C. Glucose units.
D. Monosaccharides.

11. The bond formed between H2O and H+ to form the hydroxonium H3O+ is

A) Dative

B) Covalent

C) Electrovalent

D) Ionic

12. The minimum amount of energy required for effective collisions between reacting particles is known as

A) Activation energy

B) Bond energy

C) Kinetic energy

D) Potential energy

13. An element X forms the following oxides X2O,XO and XO2. This phenomenon illustrates the law of ________

A) Conservation of mass

B) Definite proportion

C) Mass action

D) Multiple proportions

14. How many moles of oxygen would contain 1.204×1024 molecules?
NB: Avogadro’s constant (NA) =6.02×1023

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4

15. Which of the following statements about solids is correct?

A) Solid particles are less orderly than those of a liquid

B) Solid have lower densities than liquids

C) Solid particles have greater kinetic energies than those of liquids

D) Solid particles cannot be easily compressed

16. Which of the following apparatus can be used to measure a specific volume of a liquid accurately?

A) Beaker

B) Conical flask

C) Measuring cylinder

D) Pipette

17. The general gas equation PVT=K is a combination of

A) Boyle’s and Charles’ laws

B) Boyle’s and Graham’s laws

C) Charles’ and Graham’s laws

D) Dalton’s and Graham’s laws

18. The spreading of the scent of a flower in a garden is an example of ______

A) Brownian motion

B) Diffusion

C) Osmosis

D) Tyndal effect

19. Propane and carbon (IV) oxide diffuse at the same rate because [H = 1.00, C = 12.0, O = 16.0]

A) They are both gases

B) Their molecules contain carbon

C) They have the same relative molecular mass

D) Both are denser than air

A) Atomization

B) Electronegativity

C) Electron affinity

D) Ionization




(i)Ammonia (NH³)
(ii)Hydrogen chloride gas(HCl)

To show that hydrogen chloride is extremely soluble in water.

Fill a round-bottomed fask with dry hydrogen chloride through a tube A and air through another tube B. Add a few drops of water through B and close the tubes. Invert the flask into a trough of water containing blue litmus solution. The water turns red.

(i)Petrochemical industries
(ii)Pharmaceutical industries.

(i)Pollution of water bodies by chemical waste
(ii)Pollution of the air
(iii)Radioactive particles are released

(ii)Coal gas
(iii)Coal tar

(i)Coal gas=> important gaseous fuel
(ii)Coke => used as a reducing agent

(i)calcium tetraoxosulphate(iv)
(ii)calcium hydrotrioxocarbonate(iv)

(i)By boiling.
(ii)Addition of caustic soda.

(i)Hard water contains dissolved minerals and therefore tastes better.
(ii)The calcium salts in hard water help animals to build strong teeth and bones.


Draw the diagram

I. Activation Energy = (210 – 100)KJ = 110K
II. Hp – HR = ΔH
54 – 100 = -46KJ

Q2(g) + R2(g) –> 2QR(g)

Exothermic reaction.

The heat content of the reactant is higher than that of the product.

E7 – 1s² 2S² 2P³
F9 – 1s² 2S² 2P⁵
G12 – 1S² 2S² 2P⁶ 3S²
H13 – 1S² 2s² 2P⁶ 3S² 3P¹

I. G and H

Isotopy is the existence of an element in more than one physical form with the same atomic number but different atomic masses.

(i) Atoms
(ii) Molecules
(iii) ions

They are isomers

A – Trans 1,2 dichloroethane

B – Cis 1,2 dichloroethane


They contain the same functional group the single bond. The only difference is the polarity(physical property)
The Cis – polar compound while Trans-1, -di chloroethane is non polar

(i) Temperature remains constant during boiling
(ii) There is change of state during boiling

I – It will increase the boiling point of water.
II – It will reduce the boiling point of water.

Boiling occurs at a specific temperature While Evaporation occurs at almost all temperatures.

An unsaturated solution is one that contains less than the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve at a given temperature While A saturated solution is one that contains maximum of solute that can be dissolved in it at that temperature.

(i) By increasing the temperature of the solution.
(ii) By increasing the amount of the solute.


Mole is a standard scientific unit for measuring large quantities of very small entities such as atoms, molecules, or other specified particles

MgO(s)+2HCl(aq) —> MgCl(aq)+H2O(l)
From the equation of reaction; 1 mole of MgO = 2 moles of HCl
Hence n = cv/100
where c = 0.1moldm-³; v = 25.0cm³
No of mole of HCl = n = 0.1×25/1000
= 2.5 x 10-³ moles
Hence the no of moles ofMgO required = 2.5/2 x10-³
But n = m/M = reacting mass/ Molar mass —> m = nM = 1.25×10-³ x 40
= 50 x 10-³ = 0.05g of MgO.

(i) They are malleable
(ii) They are ductile
(iii) They are good conductors of heat and electricity

Faraday’s first law of electrolysis states that the mass(m) of an element discharged during electrolysis is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity(Q) passing through it.

(i) Strong electrolytes conduct large currents while Weak electrolytes do not conduct current readily.
(ii) Strong electrolytes ionize completely while weak electrolytes ionize only slightly.

Ethyne burns in air to give a smoky and luminous flame (complete combustion)

If an organic compound contains carbon atoms joined by double or triple covalent bonds. The compound is said to be an unsaturated hydrocarbon.

CH3COOH(aq) + CH3OH(aq) <–> CH3COOCH3(l) + H2O(l)

Methyl ethanoate

By removing the main product continuously

Number of moles of Zn dust = Mass/molars mass = 3.75/65 =0.0077
Reacting mole ratio of Zn to H2 is 1:1
:’ No of moles of H2 produced =0.0677 moles
1 mole = 6.02×10²³ molecules
0.0577moles of hydrogen produces
=6.02×10²³ x0.0577
=0.347×10²³ molecules
Or 3.47×10²² molecules


Reaction C

Zinc (from + 2 to + 4)

(i)Each spectral line is caused by an electron
(ii)Electron can exist only in circular orbit of definite quantum energy.

It could not account for the spectrum at note complicated atoms

(i)Temperature of the reacting system
(ii)Pressure of the reacting system
(iii)Concentration of the reacting system

(i)Both liberate carbon(iv) oxide
(ii)One produces a chloride salt, the other produces an ethronate salt


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