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Waec Geography 2021 Answers – Thursday 30th September 2021

Waec Geography Answers 2021: It’s time for you to subscribe and receive Waec Geography Answers 2021 for 30th September for today’s exam and make your papers once. have you been searching for a verified Waec 2021 Geography answer source, then Expobite is the right pick for you to get your 100% verified correct sure answers for Geography. Waec Geography (Obj/Essay) Answer 2021, Waec Geography (Obj/Essay) 2021, Waec Timetable 2021, Waec 2021 Syllabus, Waec Time Table Download, Waec May June exam Start When.

Waec Geography Questions and Answers – See all the answers and questions on Geography for this year’s AUGUST/SEPTEMBER Waec Geography exams Expo here.

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(i) Lagos State
(ii) Rivers State
(iii) Ogun State
(iv) Anambra State

(i) Lagos State; manufacturing industries and innovation industries etc
(ii) Rivers State; oil and gas industry
(iii) Ogun State; manufacturing industries like Gee-pee tank, Apex paints ltd, Drury industries limited, etc.
(iv) Anambra State; mineral resources industries

(i)Increase in Gross National Product (GNP): Industrial sector through their operations like payment of taxes increases the earnings accruing to the nation.

(ii)Employment opportunities: Industries provide employment (jobs) for many people.

(iii)International trade improves trade balance: Most of the products of manufacturing industries like machinery are usually from western nations. This forms the basis for international trade and improves trade balance between countries.

(i)Shortage of raw materials: Lack of sufficient raw materials available to industries hinders large scale production.

(ii)Insufficient capital: Access to finance or loan is very difficult. Capital (i.e. loan) is only easy for the big time investors, who possess collateral securities, to secure.

(iii)High degree of foreign dependence: Most products made in Africa are of low quality when compared with their counterparts in developed countries. Hence, people rely or depend on foreign goods.

Total population of country Z = 5,500,000 + 8,000,000 + 6,700,000 + 4,800,000 = 25,000,000
Total Population of country Z = 25,000,000

Total land Area of country Z = 60,000 + 105,000 + 125,000 + 88,000 = 378,000km²

Population density of country Z = Total population/Total Land Area
= 25,000,000/378,000
= 66
Therefore population density of country Z = 66 persons per kilometre square

(i) Increase in birth rate
(ii) Industrialization
(iii) Employment Opportunities
(iv) Presence of social amenities

(i) Large labour; High population density provides large labour for industries
(ii) Large Market; High population is a source of large market for industries
(iii) Effective planning; Large population brings concentration of effective planning so that town, city, can function properly
(iv) Information; There will be quick dissemination of information in the areas where there is high population density either through people, internet or mass Media.

Total population of country Z = 5,500,000 + 8,000,000 + 6,700,000 + 4,800,000 = 25,000,000
Total Population of country Z = 25,000,000

Total land Area of country Z = 60,000 + 105,000 + 125,000 + 88,000 = 378,000km²

Population density of country Z = Total population/Total Land Area
= 25,000,000/378,000
= 66
Therefore population density of country Z = 66 persons per kilometre square

(i) Increase in birth rate
(ii) Industrialization
(iii) Employment Opportunities
(iv) Presence of social amenities

(i) Large labour; High population density provides large labour for industries
(ii) Large Market; High population is a source of large market for industries
(iii) Effective planning; Large population brings concentration of effective planning so that town, city, can function properly
(iv) Information; There will be quick dissemination of information in the areas where there is high population density either through people, internet or mass Media.

A settlement is a place where people live but it also includes the people who live there, the buildings, the roads, streets and pathways which link up the buildings in the settlement and through which the people communicate.

(i) Conurbation: It consists of several towns joined together but each town still maintains its identity eg Accra Tema, Lagos Ikeja, Serondi-Takoradi

(ii) Megalopolis: It is the largest form of urban settlement where neighbouring cities emerge and form one huge city. Eg Washington, Chicago

(i) supply of unskilled labour: most youth migrate from the village to the cities and work as head porters in the town.
(ii) provision of medicinal herbs; this rural areas supply urban centres with medicinal herbs such as time herbal mixture e.t.c
(iii) provision of foodstuffs; eg: rice,yam, cassava e.t.c in other words they provide raw material for construction.
(iv) provision of industrial raw material for production of fruit drinks eg: pineapple to produce fruit drinks
(v) provision of market production and manufacturing of goods eg; textiles etc

(i) Residential function: The large number of urban settlement promotes the need for residential houses to accommodate majority of people to check to creation of slums and shanty settlement

(ii) Commercial function: The presence of markets , banks ,hotels, insurance etc in urban settlement enables urban dwellers to engage in commercial activities such as trading, manufacturing etc.

(iii) Social-cultural function: Urban are places for the establishment of social and cultural infrastructures such as Universities, churches, hotel’s, mosques , museums etc

Tourism is the practice of travelling for pleasure or the business of offering information,accommodations,transportation and other services to tourists. In order words,tourism is the practice which involves the visiting of people to places of interest where they can relax,derive pleasure and entertainment.

(i)Favourable climate: For tourism to strive, the climate of the environment must be favourable so that tourists can relax and enjoy themselves.
(ii)Fine beaches: In Nigeria, there exist beautiful beaches along the coast. Such beautiful beaches include the Bar beach, Lekki and Badagry beaches.
(iii)Wild life: In Nigeria, there also exist beautiful wide life or game reserves such as Yankari and Borgu Game Reserves.
(iv)Effective publicity: For tourism to strive in Nigeria, there must be enough publicity to create awareness for the tourists on possible areas of attraction.
(v)Beautiful scenery: For tourism to grow, there must be natural and man made scenery where people can relax and entertain themselves.

(i)Inadequate funding: In Nigeria, the tourism industry is poorly funded. Poor funding has led to the poor development of the sub-sector.
(ii)lack of access roads: In Nigeria, there is basically lack of access roads to most resort centres. Many of the roads are in bad shape and this tends not to attract tourists to such centres.
(iii)Poor publicity: Lack of effective publicity or communication system for publicizing the scenery, wildlife and cultural attractions to visitors is a big problem in the country.
(iv)Inadequate personnel: One of the problems of developing tourism attractions in Nigeria is the inadequacy of competent and trained tourism personnel. Very few personnel are trained and competent.

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Waec Geography Answers 2021 for 30th September 2021

Thursday, 30th September 2021

  • Geography 2 (Essay) 9:30 am. – 11:30 am.
  • Geography 1 (Objective) 11:30 am. – 12:30 pm.
  • Geography 3 (Practical And Physical Geography) 2:00 pm. – 3:50 pm.

EXAM TYPE: Waec 2021

SUBJECT: Geography

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2021 Waec Geography Answers [20th September], Waec Geography Questions, Waec Geography 2021 Answers

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WAEC Geography Past Questions and Answers

Waec Past Questions and Answer

The West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) is a type of standardized test taken in West Africa, mostly by students who wish to proceed to higher institutions. It is administered by the West African Examination Council (WAEC).

The resources below on Geography have been provided by WAEC to assist you to understand the required standards expected in the Geography final Examination. Students’ performance in the examination under review was done by the Chief examiner Questions.

The contents in each WASSCE Geography question paper (for a specific year) are usually similar from one country to another. Questions on the WASSCE Geography section may be specified to be answered by candidates.

The standard of the paper was good and did not deviate from those of the previous years. The questions were straightforward, unambiguous, and spread to cover most aspects of the Syllabus. The rubrics were clearly stated.

However, there has been so much significant improvement in the overall candidates’ performance compared with those of the previous years because of the Past question that student engages themselves.


WAEC Geography Past Questions 2020 PAPER 2 (ESSAY)



You Are To Answer Question One(1) And Any Other Three (3) Questions.

Relief; the relief of the mapped area (kashimbila N.W) can be described as follows
(i)A dissected plateaus is found of the north central area of the map which extended to the Central area.
(ii)The eastern , western and southern areas of the mapped area are mainly lowlands with the lowest height of 500m above see level

Drainage pattern; this can be described in the the following ways
(i)the main river is the katsina ala given and other minor ones that empty their water into it e;g mku,agbadi,apipo,abagu,kangi, etc . The direction of flow of river katsina – Ala is from north-west to south – east on the map .
(ii)the drainage pattern of the mapped area is dendritic.

Settlement; the settlement pattern of the mapped area is displeased on scalloped settlement. That is the building are far from each other with few social amenities.

The development of given katsina – ala in these stages there are the youthful and matured and old age stages.
The youthful stage mark the source of river katsina – ala at bamenda highlands with a V-shape valley. The matured stage of the rivers is characterized by meanders and U-shape valley. The old stage leads to the mouth of given katsina – ala (I;e when it empties its water to river benue)

The reasons for the above cycles of development of given katsina – ala are;

(i)Vertical erosion at the youthful stage
(ii)Lateral erosion and transportation at the matured stage
(iii)Deposition of materials at the old age stage.

(i)changing of the seasons not same temperature in different parts of the Earth
(ii)change of the length of the Day and Night during the year
(iii)change of the position of the midday sun and night during the year and in the different parts of the Earth
(iv)Change of the lunar eclipse and marking of the year.

(i)Equinox refers to a day with an equal duration of day and night. We have two equinoxes in a year which are:
-Spring equinox on March 20
-Autumnal equinox on September 22

(i)It could be spring or autumnal.
(ii)It is equal lengths of day and night
(iii)the days and nights are equal

Solstice is refers to a day with either the longest day or the shortest. The two solstices in a year are:
-Winter solstice on December 22
-Summer solstice on June 21

(i)It could be summer or winter
(ii)It is unequal length of day and night
(iii)The days are longer in summer and shorter in winter.

(i)Because the changes in hours of daylight and in temperature caused by
revolution and tilt lead to the yearly change of seasons at middle latitudes. If Earth’s axis were perpendicular to its plane of orbit, seasons would not
occur. In addition, every place on Earth’s surface would experience 12 hours
of daylight and 12 hours of darkness every day. On the other hand, if Earth’s
axis were tilted more than 23.5°, each hemisphere would experience hotter
summers and colder winters.

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(ii)Because On the first day of summer, every point on Earth within 23.5° of the
North Pole experiences 24 hours of daylight. The boundary of this region,
at latitude 66.5° N, is the Arctic Circle. On June 21 in the Southern
Hemisphere, every point south of the Antarctic Circle (latitude 66.5° S )
experiences 24 hours of darkness.

(iii)Because The hemisphere tilted toward the sun receives more direct sunlight and
thus has warmer temperatures and longer days. The hemisphere tilted
away from the sun receives indirect sunlight. That hemisphere has cooler
temperatures and shorter days. In other words it changes the summer to be warm and bright and also changes it to be Winter.

Environmental conservation is the practice of us humans saving the environment from the loss of species, and the destruction of the ecosystem, primarily due to pollution and human activities.


(i)Recycling; This is a process by which the life of resource is extended by means of recycling it or reusing it as an input or output. This is applicable only to on-energy resources, since the use of a material as an energy resource results in its useless dissipation into the atmosphere. In other words Reprocessing of unwanted products (e.g. newspapers, scrap metals, glass and sewage etc.).

(ii)Waste Reduction; waste reduction, it will automatically ensure lesser exploitation of resources. Waste reduction can be achieved by appropriately redesigning industrial processes, so that there will be technological efficiency in utilizing the resource and avoidance of waste to the minimum. In other words Further, the waste of one industry can be used as the raw material of another industry.

(iii)Material Substitution: the use of a material resource can be restricted by finding an alternative resource. The problem in this is that many materials have extensive uses and also joint uses. In other words the copper sheet can be substituted by aluminium, which at the same time would reduce demand for soldering agents made from and lead. Aluminium is being extensively substituted for tin, particularly, in the production of metal cans and containers.

(iv)Rewilding; Allowing areas to restore themselves naturally without interference by humans (except possible species reintroduction)

(i)Location; The spatial location of features are defined by coordinates in a specific reference system. In other words they are represented by points, lines or polygons and geometry of the three dimensional representation in space.

(ii)Data Quality; it refers to the credibility and accuracy of the data or more generally how good the data is. In other words quantitative quality relates to measurable components such as spatial accuracy. And the qualitative quality consists of those non-measured components, which usually relates to the entire data set and not to specific objects.

(iii)Generalization; relates to the level of scale and details associated with the object. Objects may be aggregated from larger to lower scale, while the opposite process is very limited. For example, if the countries layer can be aggregated into a states layer but opposite cannot be accomplished without external data.

(iv)Entity versus field based data; The world can be represented as a set of discrete entities such as forests, rivers, roads and buildings.This is refereed to as the Entity based approach. In other words the field-based approach represents the world as a continuous function with attributes that vary in space. Natural phenomena such as air pollution distribution and terrain may be the best represented using this approach.

(i)It has the ability of improving the organizational integration. GIS would then integrate software, hardware and also data in order to capture, analyse, manage and so display all forms of information being geographically referenced.

(ii)GIS would also allow viewing, questioning, understanding, visualizing and interpreting the data into numbers of ways which will reveal relationships, trends and patterns in the form of globes, maps, charts and reports.

(i)GIS technology might be considered as expensive software.

(ii)It as well requires enormous data inputs amount that are needed to be practical for some other tasks and so the more data that is to put in.

(Choose Any five)
(iii)Continentality or distance from the sea
(iv)ocean currents
(v)planetary winds and pressure belts
(v)slope and aspect

(i)It has constant high temperature with daily temperature of 26°C with no winter
(ii)It has annual rainfall of over 200cm and rainfall is throughout the year
(iii)It has high humidity all year round with double maxima of rainfall
(iv)It has small annual temperature range of 2°C – 3°C
(v)It has convectional rainfall accompanied by lightening and thunder.

Weathering is defined as the gradual breaking down or disintegration of rocks by either physical or chemical process.

(i)Climate: Climate elements like temperature and rainfall are the major factors affecting Weathering. While physical Weathering is aided by temperature and water to break down rocks, chemical Weathering is aided by water and other gases in the atmosphere
(ii)Type of rocks: rocks are made up of different minerals while some are resistant to weathering others are not simply because of their differences in structure, composition and sizes of the rocks.
(iii)Relief: very steep slopes like high mountains and courage weathering especially Frost action why gentle and even slopes favour chemical Weathering

Exfoliation is a process in which large flat or curved sheets of rock fracture and are detached from the outcrop due to pressure release: As erosion removes the overburden from a rock that formed at high pressure deep in the Earth´s crust, it allows the rock to expand, thus resulting in cracks and fractures along sheet.

(choose Any Two)
(i)Weather is the atmospheric condition of a place over a short period (days, weeks, hours, months) WHILE Climate is the average condition of a place over a long period of time(35years)
(ii)Weather changes very often WHILE climate does not change very often
(iii)Weather describe atmospheric condition of a small area WHILE climate describe the atmospheric condition of a large area

Sunshine = Sunshine is measured by sunshine recorder or light meter
Rainfall = Rainfall is measured by an instrument called Raingauge
Cloud cover = The amount of cloud in the atmosphere is measured by Oktas. In order words,the amount of the cloud in the air is expressed in okras or Eights of the sky cover

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The speed of that wind can be measured using a tool called an anemometer.
An anemometer looks like a weather vane, but instead of measuring which direction the wind is blowing with pointers, it has four cups so that it can more accurately measure wind speed. When wind pushes into the cups, they rotate the axis.

Reading is taken twice daily eg 9.00hours and 15.00hours
It is recorded in note book. it states the date of recording .The record is signed by the observer

Atmospheric pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and mold spores may be suspended as particles.

(i)Mobile source
(ii)Area sources
(iii)Natural sources
(iv)Stationary sources

(i)Deterioration of fields
(ii)Acid rain and Smog effect
(iii)Respiratory health problems
(iv)Climate change



INSTRUCTIONS: Answer four(4) questions in all: Two(2) questions each from Section A and Section B



(i) Climatic Conditions: Climatic or soil conditions in certain areas are suited for the production of a particular product.
(ii) Nearness to Raw Materials: Nearness to raw materials is a dominant factor in the location of an industry, especially that industry which uses bulky raw material that is expensive to transport and looses weight in the manufacturing process.
(iii) Nearness to Sources of power: Nearness to the sources of power is another important cause of localisation of industries.
(iv) Nearness to Markets: Before starting an industry, an entrepreneur has to take into consideration the market potentialities of his product.
(v) Adequate and Trained Labour: Industries tend to be concentrated in those areas where adequate supplies of trained labour are available.
(i)Reputation: The place where an industry is localised gains reputation, and so do the products manufactured there. As a result, products bearing the name of that place find wide markets, such as Sheffield cutlery,
(ii)Skilled Labour: Localisation leads to specialisation in particular trades. As a result, workers skilled in those trades are attracted to that place.
(iii)Growth of Facilities: Concentration of an industry in particular locality leads to the growth of certain facilities there. To cater to the needs of the industry, banks and financial institutions open their branches, whereby the firms are able to get timely credit facilities.
(iv)Subsidiary Industries: Where industries are localised, subsidiary industries grow up to supply machines, tools, implements and other materials, and to utilise their by-products.
(v)Employment Opportunities: As a corollary to the above, with the localisation of an industry in a particular locality and the establishment of subsidiary industries, employment opportunities considerably increase in that locality.
(i)houses are close together.
(ii)Social services are available in these settlements.
(iii)Roads are narrow in the old parts of these settlements.
(iv)People from different castes, religions, races and ideologies live together in these settlements and hence they have a better social life.
(i)Selling expensive or rare goods/services e.g. Lagos.
(ii)Providing jobs in industry or services.
(iii)As an administrative centre for the area around it.
(iv)As an entertainment centre, for example offering sporting attractions, shopping areas, restaurants.
(Choose Any Four)
(i)Accessibility and Relief
(ii)Economic activities
(iii)Provision of social amenities
(iv)Relief and climate
(v)Nature of the soil
(vi) Climate and Administration



(i) Trees have buttress roots and aerial roots
(ii) It has scanty under-growth
(iii) Plants have soft and green barks to make transportation efficient

(i) Source of raw materials for industries: rainforest has a lot of timber’s in which the industries use in their various activities. By this, the government enjoy the benefit of tax to increase government revenue
(ii) Provision of food: It also serve as source of food for the people which can be consumed locally and internationally
(iii) Provision of medicine; Some plant in this belt has medicinal values to cure diseases which can boost the country’s image
(iv) Source of fuel: In this belt, wood can be obtained which is used for cooking



(i) Professional development reimbursement.
(ii) Performance & career development programs.
(iii) Frequent company social activities & opportunities to give back to the community.

(i) import/export processes.
(ii) heavy human and vehicular congestion around the ports.
(iii) difficulty in gaining access to the ports due to bad roads.

(i) Coal
(ii) Petroleum

(i) hydro-power
(ii) Solar energy

(i) Lack of modern technology for the mining and extraction of coal
(ii) Lack of good railway transportation system for conveying coal from mining to thermal plants.
(iii) Collapsed and unmaintained thermal plants
(iv) Lack of functional refineries for refining petroleum products.

(i) Investment by the government in putting adequate technology to resuscitate coal mining
(ii) The development of efficient railway system across the country, especially carrier trains for goods.
(iii) Overhauling of existent thermal plants to become functional and the building of new plants across critical locations of the country.
(iv) The government must repair the dormant refineries in the country, and build new high capacity ones.


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