50 Notes And Key Points In Jamb Chemistry
1. The most reactive metal known is Francium.
2. GEL is a SOL which contains more solid particle dispersed in liquid than usual.
3. The hardest substance known to man is DIAMOND.
4. The lowest Oxidation State of IRON is ZERO
5. Quantum Numbers only describes ELECTRONS and not ATOMS.
6. Hydrogenation of Alkynes gives Alkanes
7. The Law of Definite Proportion is also referred to as the law of Constant Composition
8. Sodium liberates H2 from Water = False.
*Sodium liberates H2 from Steam = True
9. The electrolyte used in DOWN CELL is Molten NaCl fused with Cacl2
10. Na is not stored under water because it Tarnishes.
11. Burning Kerosene gives CO2 + H2O
12. Dissolution of Calcium in water gives CaO.
13. All Nitrates are Soluble in water. Also, all nitrates unstable to heat.
14. N2O is the first Anaesthetic man ever used.
15. The flame used by welders is called Oxy-acetylene flame
16. Consecutive members of the Alkane homologous series differ by CH2.
17. The difference between drying and dehydration is that drying is removal of water while dehydration is the removal of elements of water (Hydrogen and oxygen).
18. Benzene is an Aromatic hydrocarbon.
19. Atomic mass is the mass of proton and neutron in the nucleus of an atom.
20. Atomic number is the number of Electron an atom has.
21. Electrons revolve around the atom while Proton and Neutron are inside the Nucleus of the Atom.
22. Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of the nuclei of an atom to emit energy and radiations such as ALPHA PARTICLES, BETA PARTICLES AND GAMMA RAYS.
23. Alpha particles have the least penetrating power. Beta particles can be stopped by Aluminium foil while Gamma rays can only be stopped by LEAD BLOCK.
24. The ability of CARBON to form long chains, branched chains and ring is called catenation.
25. Elements that can combine with carbon to give compounds are:
26. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons could be Cyclic, Acyclic or Alicyclic.
27. Pure substances have definite boiling point and melting point.
28. Example of radioactive material are Uranium, Thorium and Polonium.
29. The most notable scientist who contributed to the development of Periodic table between 1817 ti 1895 was Dmitri T. Mendeleev
30. The fourth and fifth period contains 18 elements each.
31. Elements in the same group are called CONGENERS.
32. Free Hydrogen (H2) is the lightest gas known.
33. Viscosity is the resistance to flow in liquids.
34. Water starts boiling when the saturated vapour pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure.
35. Factors affecting boiling points of organic compounds are branching, volatility, polarity and impurity.
36. The most reactive nonmetal known is fluorine.
37. Impurity increases boiling point but reduces melting point.
38. Ernest Rutherford is the father of nuclear science.
39. Radioactivity can also be called transmutation.
40. NUCLEAR ENERGY is produced by Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion.
41. Energy from the Sun is as a result of Nuclear fusion but reaches the earth via Radiation (Correction Credit: Saheed Soneye).
42. The two types of radioactivity are natural radioactivity and artificial radioactivity.
43. Every nucleus is positive.
44. For solid which sublime, sublimation can be used to isolate the solid from its impurities if the impurities themselves do not sublime.
45. CRAO.. Reduction takes place in cathode and oxidation occurs in the anode.
46. Compound that rotates plane polarised light is said to be optically active.
47. Cathode ray tube was the forerunner of of today’s television tube.
48. R.A Millikan found the charge of an electron to be -1.60×10-19C
49. Antoine Becquerel discovered Radioactivity while Marie Curie suggested the name “Radioactivity”.
50. Each Hydrogen spectrum produces six series and each series produces lines while each line has specific wavelength.