Answer 4 Questions in all.
Two(2) from each section. 2 from section
A and 2 from Section B.


Universal declaration of human rights

(i) Conduct investigation into cases of human rights violation: States have the obligation to conduct exhaustive and impartial investigation into allegations of human rights violation in order to identify and bring to justice the perpetrators. The declaration in human rights defenders emphasises by outlining the obligation to conduct a “prompt and impartial investigation” or inquiry’s whenever there’s “reasonable ground” to believe that a violation has occurred

(ii) Take all necessary measures to protect human rights defenders against violation, discrimination and retaliation: In carrying out their works, human rights defenders need to be assured of effective protection against violence, retaliation or discrimination. The increasing need for such protection has been illustrated by numerous attacks on human rights defenders in recent years.

(iii) Promote human rights through education and training: Human rights training and education are crucial for promoting a better understanding of human rights within a society. Under various human rights treaties states have a duty to adopt measures to promote human rights through teaching, education and training.

Representative democracy: This is the form of government where people run the government or exercise political power through their elected representatives.

(i) Recruitment of political leaders: One of the key functions of political parties is the recruitment of political leaders.

(ii) Education of the electorates: Political parties in Nigeria educate the electorates through their campaigns and rallies.

(iii) Promotion of interest in politics: People become interested in politics through the activities of political parties.

(iv) Ensuring political stability: Political parties help to ensure political stability by presenting candidates of integrity and experience in governance.

(i) Right to life
(ii) Right to personal liberty
(iii) Right to fair hearing

(i)contesting election:a citizen has the right to contest for any political offices any time he wishes to do so

(ii)voting in election: citizens have the right to cast their votes for the candidate of their choice without interference from any body

(iii)Belonging to a political party: it’s the political right of a citizen to belong to any political parties of his choices.

(iv)Holding of public offices: this allow individual to contribute immensely in the areas of decision making.


The rule of law: the rule of law is defined as the supremacy of the law over every citizen in a political system. It means that every citizen must act in accordance with the law

(i) Promotes the freedom of the judiciary: One of the advantages of rules of law is that it promotes the freedom of the judiciary

(ii) Enhance the freedom of the individuals : Where rules of law operates, government are expected to allow the expression of divergent views in the society.

(iii) Promotes qualitative life: Where rules of law operates to the letter, the quality of life of the citizen is greatly enhanced

(iv) Preserves the constitution: Another advantages of the operation of rules of law is that it helps to preserve the constitution of the land.

Popular participation: this can be defined as the process where by individuals get themselves involves in the political activities and in the decision making of their country.

(i) good governance: when the govt in power provide good governance to the citizens , it will enable the citizens to be interested in participating in their political system

(ii) Free and fair election: if there is free and fair election that devoid of harassment and intimidation of voters , it will encourage the citizens to be interest in the political system of their country

(iii) Rule of law: supremacy of the constitution that will guarantee level playing ground for both the voters and candidates may encourage citizens to take in their political system

(iv)Failure of the past govt: people may want to participate in govt because past govt failed the people in the areas of provision of amenities, so citizens may be encouraged to come out and vote bad govt out of office.

(i) Speed limit
(ii) No overtaking
(iii) Packing hall

(i) Over speeding: At high speed the vehicle needs greater distance to stop i.e. braking distance. The ability to judge the forthcoming events also gets reduced while driving at faster speed which causes error in judgment and finally a crash.

(ii) Bad roads: The failure of successive government in Nigeria to fix the death traps called roads in Nigeria has no doubt caused so much pain to temporary and frequent roads user’s

(iii) Poor vehicle maintenance: Most of the vehicles are in bad shape and as a result of the bad maintenance cause so many accident in Nigeria.

(iv) Drunken driving: Consumption of alcohol decreases reaction time of a human body. Limbs take more to react to the instructions of brain. It hampers vision due to dizziness. It also dampens fear and incite humans to take risks. All these factors while driving causes accidents.

(v) Distraction to Driver:
Though distraction while driving could be minor but it can cause major accidents. Distractions could be outside or inside the vehicle. The major distraction now a days is talking on mobile phone while driving.

Value signify norms and behavioural traits which are generally accepted as being of great worth in the society

(i) Discipline: Is the ability to obey rules and regulations of the place where one lives or works and being able to do so without being force by anyone.

(ii) Contentment: Can be defined as a state of being happy and satisfied with whatever one has.

(iii) Integrity: Is the ability to stick to sound moral princples at all times.

(iv) Honesty: Can be defined as the state of being truthful and straight forward in whatever we are doing.

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