IJMB 2022 Sociology Answers 2022 – 21st June 2022
Durkheim found that suicide was less common among women than men, more common among single people than among those who are romantically partnered, and less common among those who have children.
Further, he found that soldiers commit suicide more often than civilians and that curiously, rates of suicide are higher during peacetime than they are during wars.
Durkheim’s Typology of Suicide
Durkheim developed a theoretical typology of suicide to explain the differing effects of social factors and how they might lead to suicide:
- Anomic suicide is an extreme response by a person who experiences anomie, a sense of disconnection from society and a feeling of not belonging resulting from weakened social cohesion.
- Altruistic suicide is often a result of excessive regulation of individuals by social forces such that a person may be moved to kill themselves for the benefit of a cause or for society at large. An example is someone who commits suicide for the sake of a religious or political cause.
- Egoistic suicide is a profound response executed by people who feel totally detached from society. Ordinarily, people are integrated into society by work roles, ties to family and community, and other social bonds. When these bonds are weakened through retirement or loss of family and friends, the likelihood of egoistic suicide increases.
- Fatalistic suicide occurs under conditions of extreme social regulation resulting in oppressive conditions and a denial of the self and of agency. In such a situation a person may elect to die rather than continue enduring the oppressive conditions, such as the case of suicide among prisoners.
3a) Pressure groups are defined as organised groups that have a strong influence on the public and the making of government policies.
i.) Pressure groups try to make the government more attentive to the needs of the people. This is because as groups with many members sometimes nationally spread, they command more respect than individuals who may be fighting for similar causes.
ii.) Pressure groups provide specialised and expert information to the government on their interests and explain government policies to their members and the general public. Thus they are an important link between the government and the people.
III.) They help to educate their members and the whole society on their fundamental human and political rights, and on some government policies.
iv) The political education and consciousness of citizens are promoted through the activities of pressure groups.
V) They promote economic stability of the country through their useful advice to government on economic policies. Example is the Nigerian Association of Chambers of Commerce, Industry, Mines and Agriculture (NACCIMA).
Vi) Pressure groups help to integrate the differing interests of various groups in the society into a manageable whole. With this, the government’s attention to these needs will be more focused and effectively addressed.
QUESTION NUMBER 4
SOCIALIZATION is a lifelong process during which we learn about social expectations and how to interact with other people. Nearly all of the behavior that we consider to be ‘human nature’ is actually learned through socialization. And, it is during socialization that we learn how to walk, talk, and feed ourselves, about behavioral norms that help us fit in to our society, and so much more.
There is no better way to start than to talk about the role of family in our social development, as family is usually considered to be the most important agent of socialization. As infants, we are completely dependent on others to survive. Our parents, or those who play the parent role, are responsible for teaching us to function and care for ourselves. They, along with the rest of our family, also teach us about close relationships, group life, and how to share resources. Additionally, they provide us with our first system of values, norms, and beliefs – a system that is usually a reflection of their own social status, religion, ethnic group, and more.
The next important agent of childhood socialization is the school. Of course, the official purpose of school is to transfer subject knowledge and teach life skills, such as following directions and meeting deadlines. But, students don’t just learn from the academic curriculum prepared by teachers and school administrators. In school, we also learn social skills through our interactions with teachers, staff, and other students. For example, we learn the importance of obeying authority and that to be successful, we must learn to be quiet, to wait, and sometimes to act interested even when we’re not.
Peer groups allow children to form relationships and learn without the direction of adults.
Another agent of socialization that relates to school is our peer group. Unlike the agents we’ve already discussed – family and school – peer groups give us an opportunity as children to form relationships with others on our own terms, plus learn things without the direction of an adult.
- A group is more or less permanent while a crowd is very short lived or transitory in nature.
- A group can any time turn to a crowd and a crowd can also any time turn to a group.
- In a crowd, there is emotional excitement of a strong nature which is absent in a group.
- Drives of more primitive types are found in a crowd where one looses its rational behaviour and becomes animalistic, irrational, antisocial being guided by the emotional aspect and excitement. Prepotent drives like fear, anger and love in their raw, naked and uncivilized form are found. But members of a group behave in a very organized, constructive, social and civilized manner. They are less demonstrative in their behaviour and show value based activities.
- There is more face to face and shoulder to shoulder contact, more forward and backward movement and physical action in an action crowd, while in a group such actions are almost absent.
IJMB 2022 Sociology Answers 2022 – 21st June 2022