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Paper-II: Drama & Poetry – Literature in English
3:00pm – 4:40pm



(3) wara is a stranger in mandoland too but has lived there long enough to detest being called stranger, and She is also in love with Kindo, She not born in Mandoland, her mother was taken prisoner by one of mando’s warriors during the war; her mother ran away after giving birth to her.
Wara cautions kindo form doing anything which will anger the spirit, Wara is the only Kindo’s woman that will be sexually assaulted by Whitehead. Maligu and soko lot abduction into a sack and then take to whitehead’s compound. she fortunately escapes. For her love for Kindo, she is ready to risk anything to be with him, likes to follow him everywhere and Kindo is not comfortable with that as a warrior. Her love for Kindo is so intense that she refuses to leave with her grandfather to their homeland but remains in Mandoland in order to be with Kindo. In a way, her mother is seen as a slave ofthe Mando people. This reality poses a great threat to her relationship with Kindo. This is why Kindo cannot take her to the palace.
Even though she has absolute faith in Kindo, she is still very mindful of her integrity as a woman and also respects the customary norms of her society. This is one of the reasons she resists Kindo having her just anywhere and pushes to be taken to the palace. Wara’s steadfastness in preventing Whitehead from raping her is indicative of the resilience of the bloggingAfrican space to Western plundering schemes.




(5) [Pick two]

(i)Charles Marlow:
Charles Marlow, the play’s central male character, is a modest and well-educated man who has set out to court Kate Hardcastle. Believing the Hardcastle home to be an inn, Marlow is rude to Mr. Hardcastle, whom he thinks is the innkeeper. Marlow is extremely shy around upper-class women, becoming a nervous, bumbling fool in their presence. But around women below his status, he becomes a confident and dashing rogue.

(ii)Miss Kate Hardcastle:
Miss Hardcastle is the other central character and the one who does the titular stooping. The daughter of Mr. Hardcastle, she shows her father great respect and love. Unlike Mr. Hardcastle, she appreciates the town and all it offers. Kate is cunning, posing as a maid to deceive Marlow—attracted as he is to women of lower status—into falling in love with her. Kate sees that in order for her relationship with Marlow to blossom, she must drastically alter her personality.

(iii) Tony Lumpkin:
Tony Lumpkin is Mrs. Hardcastle’s son and Mr. Hardcastle’s stepson. He is a mischievous and uneducated playboy who is fond of gambling and performing at the alehouse. Lumpkin is promised in marriage to Constance Neville, his cousin. However, because he despises Constance, he goes to great lengths to help her and Hastings elope to France. The joke that he plays on Marlow—convincing him that the Hardcastle home is an inn—is the central deception that drives the plot forward.

(iv) Mr. Hardcastle:
Mr. Hardcastle is a level-headed man who is in love with all things old. He despises the town and its follies, preferring instead to recount the tales of his time at war. He cares very deeply for his daughter, and he is the one who arranges the marriage between Kate and Marlow. Despite being greatly insulted by Marlow’s initial treatment of him, he manages to keep his temper and, after realizing the deception and misunderstanding at work, forgives Marlow and consents to Marlow’s marriage to Kate.

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(v)Mrs. Hardcastle:
The mother of Tony and the wife of Mr. Hardcastle, Mrs. Hardcastle is a corrupt and greedy widow. She desires the socialite lifestyle of the London elite and often complains that she and her husband never entertain. She spoils Tony, and her love for him blinds her to his flaws. She promises Tony to Constance in marriage in an attempt to keep her inheritance within the family and to take advantage of Constance’s social standing. Mrs. Hardcastle’s greed and vanity prevents her from seeing Tony’s dislike of Constance.

*The Value and Purpose of Dreams*
A Raisin in the Sun is essentially about dreams, as the main characters struggle to deal with the oppressive circumstances that rule their lives. The title of the play references a conjecture that Langston Hughes famously posed in a poem he wrote about dreams that were forgotten or put off. He wonders whether those dreams shrivel up “like a raisin in the sun.” Every member of the Younger family has a separate, individual dream—Beneatha wants to become a doctor, for example, and Walter wants to have money so that he can afford things for his family. The Youngers struggle to attain these dreams throughout the play, and much of their happiness and depression is directly related to their attainment of, or failure to attain, these dreams. By the end of the play, they learn that the dream of a house is the most important dream because it unites the family.

*The Need to Fight Racial Discrimination*

The character of Mr. Lindner makes the theme of racial discrimination prominent in the plot as an issue that the Youngers cannot avoid. The governing body of the Youngers’ new neighborhood, the Clybourne Park Improvement Association, sends Mr. Lindner to persuade them not to move into the all-white Clybourne Park neighborhood. Mr. Lindner and the people he represents can only see the color of the Younger family’s skin, and his offer to bribe the -Youngers to keep them from moving threatens to tear apart the Younger family and the values for which it stands. Ultimately, the Youngers respond to this discrimination with defiance and strength. The play powerfully demonstrates that the way to deal with discrimination is to stand up to it and reassert one’s dignity in the face of it rather than allow it to pass unchecked.


Role And Character Of Ruth.
Walter’s wife and Travis’s mother. Ruth takes care of the Youngers’ small apartment. Her marriage to Walter has problems, but she hopes to rekindle their love. She is about thirty, but her weariness makes her seem older. Constantly fighting poverty and domestic troubles, she continues to be an emotionally strong woman. Ruth is in some ways like a typical housewife of the 1950s. She makes breakfast, cleans the house, supports her husband, and keeps her own desires to herself. Unlike the stereotypical 1950s housewife, though, she also goes out into the world and works her butt off. Not only does she struggle to maintain her own household, she goes out to work in the households of rich white people as well. Ruth is a “soft” personality type. She is not aggressive; she just lets life “happen” to her. She is the “worn-out wife” with a tedious, routine lifestyle. Hansberry describes Ruth as being “about thirty” but “in a few years, she will be known among her people as a “settled woman”. Ruth has only simple dreams and would be content to live out her life being moderately comfortable. Her biggest dream blossoms only after Mama’s news of the possibility of their moving to a better neighbourhood. Ruth is easily embarrassed and tries too hard to please others. When George Murchison arrives in the middle of Walter and Beneatha’s frenzied African dance, Ruth is overly apologetic to George about their behaviour. When Walter and Beneatha argue, Ruth asks Walter not to bring her into their conflict. And even though Ruth is annoyed by Lena’s (Mama’s) meddling, she still allows her mother-in-law to influence her at times about the correct way to raise Travis. Very low key, Ruth reveals the most emotion when Mama tells her that they may not be able to move; it is only then that Ruth assertively expresses her views. Lacking education and sophistication, Ruth relies upon the suggestions, advice, and even what she thinks might be the wishes of others. Her husband Walter is incredibly dissatisfied with his life, and he constantly takes it out on her. Ruth is far from a doormat and tells her husband off when he starts acting like a jerk. However, it is clear in the play that the turmoil in her marriage is taking a real toll on Ruth. She often seems irritable, depressed, and at times sinks into despair. This all comes to a head for Ruth, when she finds out she is pregnant and considers an abortion. In the ’50s, an abortion would have been (i) illegal and (ii) dangerous. But according to Mama: “When the world gets ugly enough – a woman will do anything for her family. The part that’s already living.” Though Ruth hates the idea of aborting her child, she feels it’s the best decision for her financially strapped family. In the end, though, Ruth chooses to keep her child. She finds hope in the fact that the younger family will soon be moving out of their cramped, roach-infested apartment and into a new house. She’ll still have to work to help pay the mortgage, and they’ll all have to deal with the racist backlash of living in a white neighbourhood.

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[Pick any three]

(i) Diction and Imagery:
Generally, the poet’s diction is quite simple and easy to understand. The sentences and other constructions are normal mainstream ones. These make the poem quite enjoyable, Furthermore, the images that the poet evokes in Vanity help in our easy appreciation of the themes they convey to us.

(ii) Repetition:
Like everywhere else in poetry, repetition is used here to emphasize the seriousness the persona attaches to the issues he raises.
In Vanity, however, the use of repetition is quite extensive.

(iii) Parallelism
The poet’s repetitive use of parallel grammatical structures succeeds in helping us enjoy the flow of his thoughts. It also makes it possible for us to follow his line of argument with relative ease. Significantly, parallelism in Vanity reinforces the deep sense of urgency the poet attaches to the African situation.

(iv) Apostrophe and Monologue:
The persona appears to be addressing an audience that is not directly in his presence. This is what the literary device known as apostrophe is all about.
And since his audience is only imaginary, the whole poem becomes a monologue – a one-person conversation.
The poet’s use of such personal pronouns as we, our, their portrays the poem as both an apostrophe and a monologue.
These are effective in making the tone of the poem interactive.

(v) Rhetorical Question:
A rhetorical question is used when a speaker poses a question without expecting any response from the audience. The poet makes copious use of the rhetorical question in the poem Vanity. They largely go to underline the persona’s reflective mood and his concerned attitude or tone.


“The Schoolboy” is a Romantic poem. The Romantic era was marked by a celebration of nature as the embodiment of perfection. Apart from Williams Blake, other notable Romantic poets include John keats, Percy B Shelley, William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. English poets who have their writings categorized as Romantic poems unambiguously display their love for nature and peace that nature embodied.
In “The Schoolboy”, nature becomes a means of facilitating healing at different levels of life. Romantic poets believed in the use of their imagination to explore literary creativity as a means of deifying nature. They subscribe to the idea that the only way to achieve satisfaction for the soul is to have a profound power of imagination and to also be radical and non-conformists, hence they are perceived to be irrational and daring as they aspire to do things differently. Romantic poets idolize nature and regard it as a great source of inspiration or muse. Romanticists believe that the Industrial Revolution made the world artificial and sterile, making it lose its humanity and humaneness in the process. They found solace in escaping in the beautiful world of nature. Intensive formal education was one of the fallouts of the Industrial Revolution and as seen in the poem, Blake maintains that education takes away the individual’s sense of fulfilment and quest for adventure. As a romantic poem, “The Schoolboy” celebrates and appreciates and condemns every form of human and societal restriction placed on it. It also critiques the destruction of childhood innocence as a result of the emphasis placed on the importance of classroom education. in other words the poetic persona is a young boy who is happy when he wakes up to see the dawn of a new and delightful summer morning. Summer, for the Romanticists, was the season of beauty and unparalleled bliss and joy. The boy is amused by the chirping of the birds announcing a new dawn, he is also fascinated by the melodious sounds coming from the hunter’s horn, sounding from a distant field and the mellow tunes from the skylark bird. All these experiences from the natural world attract the boy to the extent that he exclaims “Oh what sweet company!”. The boy, in search of a practical solution to his predicament, makes an appeal to his parents. It is apparent in his Iamentation that he is of the view that if a promising child like him, is removed from the source of his happiness and joy, nature, he would not be able to flourish.


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