# Neco Physics Answers 2022 28th July 2022

Good morning Teachers and Students, 2022 Neco Physics Questions and Answers are available now, subscribe with us now to get the 100% verified and correct Physics questions and answers.

Thursday 28th July 2022

• Paper III & II: Objective & Essay – Physics – 10:00am – 1:00pm

[color=blue]PHYSICS OBJ[/color]
1-10 CEDEBCCEBA
11-20 ABBBEACCCE
21-30 CEECCBCBDB
41-50 BEACCACEEB
51-60 CCCBEECBBD

# COMPLETED✅

[color=blue]PHYSICS ESSAY[/color]

(1)
{VIEW IMAGE BELOW}

[img]https://i.imgur.com/4Escfn0.jpg[/img]

(2)
-TABULATE-
SCALAR QUANTITIES
(i) They have magnitude but no direction.
(ii) Scalars are added by ordinary algebraic methods.

VECTOR QUANTITIES
(i) They have both magnitude and Direction.
(ii) Vectors are added by Geometrical methods.

(2b)
R²=3²+4²
=9+16
=25

R=✓25
R=5N

(3i)
The floatation principle states that when an object floats in a liquid, the buoyant force acting on the object is equal to the object’s weight.

(3ii)
{PICK ANY TWO}
(i) The density of the fluid.
(ii) The volume of the fluid displaced.
(iii) The local acceleration due to gravity.

(5a)
{PICK ANY DEFINITION}
(i) Positive charge: This type of charge can be produced by rubbing a glass rod with silk.

OR

(ii) Negative charge: It can be obtained on an ebonite rod by rubbing it with fur.

(5b)
V1= 500cm³
T1 = 23° + 273= 296k
P1 = 600mmHg
V2 = ?
T2= 37° + 273 = 310K
P2 = 720mmHg

V1P1 / T1 = V2P2 / T2
500 x 600 / 296 = V2 x 720 / 310
V2 = 500 x 600 x 310 / 720 x 296
V2 = 436.37 cm³

(6a)
Transverse waves particles of waves move perpendicular in the direction of the wave while in longitudinal waves particles move horizontally in the direction of the wave.

(6b)
(i) Water waves
(ii) Sound waves

(7i)
{PICK ANY ONE}
(i) The angle between the incident ray and the normal is equal to the angle between the reflected ray and the normal.
(ii) The incident ray, the normal and the reflected ray are all in the same plane.
(iii) The incident ray and the reflected ray are on different sides of the normal

(7ii)
{PICK ANY TWO}
(i) Colorimeter
(ii) spectrophotometer
(iii) Periscope
(iv) kaleidoscope

(8)
{VIEW IMAGE BELOW}

[img]https://i.imgur.com/ZMdwmMu.jpg[/img]

(9)
{VIEW IMAGE BELOW}

[img]https://i.imgur.com/PJ7VFar.jpg[/img]

(10)
{VIEW IMAGE BELOW}

[img]https://i.imgur.com/D7ISf5Z.jpg[/img]

(12)
{VIEW IMAGE BELOW}
[img]https://i.imgur.com/Wa7S2Bq.jpg[/img]
[img]https://i.imgur.com/a3CIM0v.jpg[/img]

[img]https://i.imgur.com/mTOulr9.jpg[/img]

(13)
{VIEW IMAGE BELOW}
[img]https://i.imgur.com/SfnXTls.jpg[/img]

[img]https://i.imgur.com/mO5PBtl.jpg[/img]

(15)
{VIEW IMAGE BELOW}

[img]https://i.imgur.com/dr03KaI.jpg[/img]

(16)
{VIEW IMAGE BELOW}
https://i.imgur.com/0Ta9AzB.jpg

Neco Physics Answers 2022: Neco Physics Objective & Essay Answers 2022 for 28th July 2022 with questions 100% verified official questions and answers for senior secondary schools. NECO Physics Questions and Answers 2022 (%100 Sure, NECO Physics Questions, and Answers 2022

ATTENTION:- PLEASE AFTER SENDING YOUR CARD, DO NOT THROW THEM AWAY UNTIL YOU RECEIVE A CONFIRMATION MESSAGE FROM US.

## (Neco Physics 2022)

• Whatsapp/Direct: N600 MTN CARD.

Forward Your Name, MTN PIN, Subject Name, and Phone number to 07062154881

Online PIN MEANS The Pin to access our answers online via answers.expobite.net will be sent to u at least 2hours before the exam to access our answers

## SUBSCRIBING BEFORE THE EXAM DAY MAKES YOU SAFER BCOS YOU’LL GET PASSWORDS EARLIER ON THAT EXAM DAY. ALWAYS SUBSCRIBE A DAY BEFORE EACH EXAM.

NOTE:- All SMS Sent To The Above Number Are Attended To, Our Phone Number Might Be Diverted To Avoid Distraction. PLEASE DON’T CALL US!. WE ACCEPT ONLY TEXT MESSAGES. THE NUMBER IS NOT AVAILABLE FOR CALLS BUT CAN RECEIVE AND REPLY TO TEXT MESSAGES ONLY. Always Send Us SMS Of Your Complaint.

## 2022 Neco Physics Objective & Essay Questions And Answers Expo Runz

Neco Physics Past Questions And Answers Pdf, Neco Physics Question and Answer 2022, 2022 Neco Questions and Answers, Neco 2022 Physics, Neco 2022 Physics Question, Question Physics Neco 2022, 2022 Neco Physics Answers, Neco 2022 Physics Question and Answer, Neco Physics Question 2022, Neco Question and Answer 2022, Neco Answer 2022, Neco 2022 Expo for Physics.

2022 Neco Physics Questions and Answers: If you are a candidate who is in search of Neco Physics Questions And Answers then you are on the right website because we try to make sure all our audience pass their exams.

If you need us to help you with more updated information at the right time about the 2022 Neco Physics Questions And Answers, kindly subscribe or bookmark our website for us to provide you with it.

Expobite understands how students feel whenever it comes to closing time for an external exam such as Neco, Neco, Jamb, and Post Utme, that is why we make sure any questions and answers we are releasing/publishing are always the best option questions and answers you are to see in your exam because we always follow scholars and examiners.

## 2022/2022 NECO Physics Answers for Essay & Objectives Questions And Available Now

=========================

Note: use our examination assistance help desk platform only If you have been looking for a real source in other for you to sort yourself out from Neco bondage. And makes A”s & B”s easily…

========================

ANNOUNCEMENT:

If you subscribe to these Answers, then you are to get assistance Immediately after your payment is been confirmed…

=========================

### HOW TO SUBSCRIBE FOR LIVE 2022 Physics

DIRECT SMS: N1,000

WHATSAPP: N600

=========================

PAYMENT; BY MTN CARD

1. CARD PIN NUMBER ( separate by a comma if the card is more than one)
2. Price of the card
3. The subject you are paying for
4. Phone number

Send it to 07062154881

(eg) Physics, MTN N500, 2064874584642(500), 0813533xxxx,SMS) to +2347062154881

=========================

You will be notified after your payment has been confirmed, and you get assistance immediately for both questions and answers…

=========================

REMEMBER:

Who Fail to Plan, Plan to Fail, It is Better You MEASURE And Cut Once, Than NOT TO MEASURE And Cut Twice. Subscribe earlier To get our 100% correct 2022 Neco Physics Answer now………

=========================

Success is all yours!

Physics Neco Answer 2022, Neco Mathematics 2022 Expo, Neco Physics Area of Concentration, Neco Syllabus 2022 Pdf, Neco Physics Question and Answer 2022, 2022 Neco Physics Expo, Neco Gce Physics, Neco 2022 Past Question Physics, 2022 Neco Physics Questions and Answers Pdf, 2022 Neco Physics Questions and Answers Pdf Download, 2022 Neco Physics Questions and Answers.

================================

==============================

============================

==========================

========================

runzlink, examqueen, exporunz, sureanswer, loadedking, examking, examkey, ceebook, examafrica, myscholarshipforum, examplaza, stechitegist.com, lasu-info.com, joberplanet.com, blogloaded.com. expobite.net, myschoolgoodies.com, unn-edu.info, archinformant.com, bekeking.com, naijahits.com, noniwap.com, youtube, gistpower.com, examking.net, examkey.net, examplaza.com, smartslimhub.com, facebook.com, schoolmaga.com, myschool.ng, edustuff.com.ng, legitjamb.com.ng, sylvastallone.com, noniwap, noniexpo.

INSTRUCTIONS: Answer Only One (1) Question from this Section.

(1)
A Defective Education System; The Nigeria’s education system does not prioritize reading for general acquisition of knowledge rather it prioritizes reading for passing examinations. Most students read to pass examination. Some students have even resorted to cramming in order to pass examinations. To make matters worse, some teachers want their students to write verbatim in examination. This is a wrong approach to reading and does not help one or a society to develop.
The implication is that the students will pass the exams very well but the knowledge is not there, because a few minutes after exams they can’t answer same question.

Libraries; Some actually have a building that is labelled “library” but without books and library personnel. Some libraries are stocked with outdated books or reading materials. Most students do not go to libraries these days to read or do their assignments. Some go there to write or copy notes, which ordinarily should not be the main reason.

Poor quality teachers; This is quite pathetic considering the fact that to a large extent, the quality of the teachers determines the quality of the students. Teachers are role models to their students, if teachers cannot read fluently how can the students?

Poverty; Poverty is also responsible for the prevailing poor reading culture in Nigeria. Developing a reading culture is more than buying and reading just a book, and reading repeatedly. It costs a lot of money to buy books. Some parent cannot afford school fees, let alone buying books for their children to read.
Where one does not have books to read, developing a reading culture becomes difficult. Some therefore make the decision to indulge in examination mal-practice as the only way.

The above mentioned factors can be solved through the following ways.

Government; Government at all levels should promote a good reading culture by establishing standard public libraries because not everybody has access to school libraries. In most cases, school libraries are highly restricted to students. Also, not all schools have functional libraries. Therefore, the establishment of public libraries will help those who are not in school and students whose schools do not have functional libraries.

Qualified teachers; government should employ qualified teachers to teach. If those who are not well educated are certified and employ this will not give the desired result for the future, government can also organize workshop, and trainings for it teachers.

Schools; School should make it compulsory for students to go to the library to do some readings or assignment. Schools should create a reading hour on the timetable, organize reading competitions, and especially inter-school competitions.

Parents; Parents needs to encourage their children to develop a positive attitude toward reading. To this end, parents should include in their budget reading materials for their children.

The students; Students must prioritize reading by developing a positive attitude towards it. They should see reading as natural as play, make it a hobby, and devote their time to reading good books.
All hands must be on deck for a good reading culture to be promoted among Nigerian students. The Parents, the students, the teachers and the Government must play their roles in ensuring that this is done. The students must not be lazy; they must be ready to read at all times

(3)
A1 Int’l School,
Ikeja, Lagos,
Nigeria.
27th July, 2022.

The Honorable,
South local Government office,
Ikeja Lagos,
Nigeria.

Dear sir,

LETTER TO CONGRATULATE ON BECOMING A CHAIRMAN

``````    My name is Peter Obi and I am writing to you on behalf of the youth development of our community. We are writing this letter to congratulate you as the new elected chairman of the well-known and Successful local government (Ikeja). I was so happy to hear the news, and I wanted to congratulate you immediately on this rare achievement.
After hearing your good news, I know that I had to contact you immediately and after my heartiest congratulations, you have proved that you can do things that you want to. I have see your hardwork and commitment over the years, as well as your selfless dedication to this community. I believe that you are the most deserving candidate for this post of chairman. My colleagues who know you well, Will agree with me about my opinion that you are worthy of this honorable position. You have Always demonstrate integrity in your work by setting high standar example for yourself and others.
I must add that your loyalty, Hardwork and dedication have finally paid off. I am sure you will continue to do great things in life and achieve even greater things in the coming years
Ikeja us one of the most popular local government in our state. It has large landmass, Larger than most other local Governments. it is a popular tourist attractions, but we does have some problems, as the president of the youth development association of the community over the last few years, the community of Ikeja has been suffering through a severe economic downturn. The result of this is that our youth have trouble getting jobs and many of them travel over an hour from nearby cities to work. Our schools are underfunded, and they cannot provide the best Education to our children. The state allocate a smaller amount of money per student than any other state in the country. The result of these issues is crime, poverty and a struggling economy. For example: There are only  two grocery stores left in our city, one which closed last week. This leaves many people without a place to buy healthy food, which leads to disease and health problems later in life. Because there are fewer jobs available, many teens drop out of school in order to support their families. In turn, this low education level causes our unemployment rate to be higher than the nation average. There are also no jobs for high school graduates who want an entry-level position that will lead to something better down the road. A lot of youth turn to crime because it is all they can find. There are not many opportunities for people with criminal records either. Stealing is an easy way for youth who live in the community.
We the youth of this community elected you as our chairman because we know you are good and capable leader who will be able to solve our problem.

Yours faithfully,
Prof Michael. ``````

(4)
AN EMPTY BARREL MAKES THE LOUDEST NOISE
One day in a sixth grade class there was a student named Daniel. He was a really bright student and was loved by all his teachers. Though he wasn’t that active in class discussions but did a good performance in his papers. There was another boy named Bayo. He wasn’t that good in academics but always shows off telling he was better than Daniel. Bayo also makes fun of Daniel’s silent nature and pulled him for verbal wars many times. Although Bayo was boasting but Daniel never bothered.
One monday, during the Social Science period there was a quiz held. Both Daniel and Bayo were in different teams. Bayo’s team was getting easy questions but Bayo was the first one to shout out the answer without discussing with his team mates. And all the answers he provided were wrong. In the other hand, Daniel was confident about all the answers but discussed with his team mates and gave chance for his friends to answer.
The first question asked by the teacher to Daniel’s team was; ‘How many states are there in India?’. Though knew the answer he discussed with his team and confidently answered; ” twenty-two” . Daniel’s team gets one point. Next question to Bayo’s team was; ‘What is the capital of India?’ Sham impatiently shouted the the answer saying; ‘Bangalore’. The answer was wrong, so all his teammates shouted on him. But still in the next round he didn’t change his behavior and eventually lost the quiz.
At the end of the quiz, his team walked up to him in annoyance and said to him; “it’s obvious now that the empty barrel that makes the loudest noise”

SECTION B

(5a)
The writer want from the grandmother kindness and warmth.

(5b)
She was always in the kitchen because she was weak in mind and limb and could scarcely walk about the house.

(5c)
According to the passage, the two symptoms of asthma are:
(i) Gasping and breathlessness
(ii) Wild wheezing cries

(5d)
She fled home with her grief from the sea, shut herself in the store, And threw herself face down on an old Mattress and lay their till night

(5e)
(ii) It modifies the verb “Died’

(5f)
Grandmother’s Ailment was caused by her lying face down on the old Mattress which had lain in the store for years

(5g)
Hyperbole

(5h)
(i) Doled out – Gave out
(ii) Shackled – Restricted
(iii) Battled – Struggled
(iv) Draped – Covered
(v) Exhausted – Tired
(vi) Constitution – Health

SECTION C

(6)
The activities carried out by the troop in the scatting years are:
(i) The cutting of grasses
(ii) The pumping of bicycle tyres
(iii) The cooking of food
(iv) Keeping Watch at night
(v) The assault course which was devised by the troop.

(5a)
The writer want from the grandmother kindness and warmth.

(5b)
She was always in the kitchen because she was weak in mind and limb and could scarcely walk about the house.

(5c)
According to the passage, the two symptoms of asthma are:
(i) Gasping and breathlessness
(ii) Wild wheezing cries

(5d)
She fled home with her grief from the sea, shut herself in the store, And threw herself face down on an old Mattress and lay their till night

(5e)
(ii) It modifies the verb “Died’

(5f)
Grandmother’s Ailment was caused by her lying face down on the old Mattress which had lain in the store for years

(5g)
Metaphor

(5h)
(i) Doled out – Gave out
(ii) Shackled – Restricted
(iii) Battled – Struggled
(iv) Draped – Covered
(v) Exhausted – Tired
(vi) Constitution – Health
°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°
(6)
The activities carried out by the troop in the scatting years are:
(i) The cutting of grasses
(ii) The pumping of bicycle tyres
(iii) The cooking of food
(iv) Keeping Watch at night
(v) The assault course which was devised by the troop.
°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°
°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°
(1)
A Defective Education System; The Nigeria’s education system does not prioritize reading for general acquisition of knowledge rather it prioritizes reading for passing examinations. Most students read to pass examination. Some students have even resorted to cramming in order to pass examinations. To make matters worse, some teachers want their students to write verbatim in examination. This is a wrong approach to reading and does not help one or a society to develop.
The implication is that the students will pass the exams very well but the knowledge is not there, because a few minutes after exams they can’t answer same question.

Libraries; Some actually have a building that is labelled “library” but without books and library personnel. Some libraries are stocked with outdated books or reading materials. Most students do not go to libraries these days to read or do their assignments. Some go there to write or copy notes, which ordinarily should not be the main reason.

Poor quality teachers; This is quite pathetic considering the fact that to a large extent, the quality of the teachers determines the quality of the students. Teachers are role models to their students, if teachers cannot read fluently how can the students?

Poverty; Poverty is also responsible for the prevailing poor reading culture in Nigeria. Developing a reading culture is more than buying and reading just a book, and reading repeatedly. It costs a lot of money to buy books. Some parent cannot afford school fees, let alone buying books for their children to read.
Where one does not have books to read, developing a reading culture becomes difficult. Some therefore make the decision to indulge in examination mal-practice as the only way.

The above mentioned factors can be solved through the following ways.

Government; Government at all levels should promote a good reading culture by establishing standard public libraries because not everybody has access to school libraries. In most cases, school libraries are highly restricted to students. Also, not all schools have functional libraries. Therefore, the establishment of public libraries will help those who are not in school and students whose schools do not have functional libraries.

Qualified teachers; government should employ qualified teachers to teach. If those who are not well educated are certified and employ this will not give the desired result for the future, government can also organize workshop, and trainings for it teachers.

Schools; School should make it compulsory for students to go to the library to do some readings or assignment. Schools should create a reading hour on the timetable, organize reading competitions, and especially inter-school competitions.

Parents; Parents needs to encourage their children to develop a positive attitude toward reading. To this end, parents should include in their budget reading materials for their children.

The students; Students must prioritize reading by developing a positive attitude towards it. They should see reading as natural as play, make it a hobby, and devote their time to reading good books.
All hands must be on deck for a good reading culture to be promoted among Nigerian students. The Parents, the students, the teachers and the Government must play their roles in ensuring that this is done. The students must not be lazy; they must be ready to read at all times
°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°
(4)
AN EMPTY BARREL MAKES THE LOUDEST NOISE
One day in a sixth grade class there was a student named Daniel. He was a really bright student and was loved by all his teachers. Though he wasn’t that active in class discussions but did a good performance in his papers. There was another boy named Bayo. He wasn’t that good in academics but always shows off telling he was better than Daniel. Bayo also makes fun of Daniel’s silent nature and pulled him for verbal wars many times. Although Bayo was boasting but Daniel never bothered.
One monday, during the Social Science period there was a quiz held. Both Daniel and Bayo were in different teams. Bayo’s team was getting easy questions but Bayo was the first one to shout out the answer without discussing with his team mates. And all the answers he provided were wrong. In the other hand, Daniel was confident about all the answers but discussed with his team mates and gave chance for his friends to answer.

The first question asked by the teacher to Daniel’s team was; ‘How many states are there in India?’. Though knew the answer he discussed with his team and confidently answered; ” twenty-two” . Daniel’s team gets one point. Next question to Bayo’s team was; ‘What is the capital of India?’ Sham impatiently shouted the the answer saying; ‘Bangalore’. The answer was wrong, so all his teammates shouted on him. But still in the next round he didn’t change his behavior and eventually lost the quiz.

At the end of the quiz, his team walked up to him in annoyance and said to him; “it’s obvious now that the empty barrel that makes the loudest noise”

SECTION A

(2)
(i) Subsistence and Commercial Activities:
Agriculture is the main economic activity. Grain is the staple diet, including Guinea corn, millet, maize, and rice. The Hausa also grow and eat root crops and a variety of vegetables. Cotton and peanuts are processed and used locally, but part of the harvest is exported. The Hausa practice intercropping and double-cropping; their main implement is the hoe.

(ii) Industrial Arts:
There are full-time specialists only where there is an assured market for craft products. Men’s crafts include tanning, leatherworking, saddling, weaving, dying, woodworking, and smithing. Iron has been mined, smelted, and worked as far back as there are Hausa traditions.

Trade is complicated and varied. Some traders deal in a particular market, as distinguished from those who trade in many markets over a long distance. This dual trade strategy, augmented by the contributions of the Cattle Fulani, enabled the Hausa to meet all of their requirements, even during the nineteenth century.

(iv) Division of Labor:
Hausa society traditionally observes several divisions of labor: in public administration, it is primarily men who may be appointed, although some women hold appointed positions in the palace. Class determines what sort of work one might do, and gender determines work roles. When women engage in income-producing activities, they may keep what they earn

(v) Land Tenure:
The rural householder farms with his sons’ help; from the old farm, he allocates to them small plots, which he enlarges as they mature. New family fields are cleared from the bush.

(3)
(i)Each Igbo village was seen as a political unit inhabited by related families who were bounded by common beliefs and origin. Each family head in the village held the ‘Ofo‘ title and altogether formed the council of elders.

(iii)Among the council of elders, one was recognized as the most senior to others. He was the ‘Okpara‘. He could call for and adjourn a meeting, and could also give judgements as well.

(iii)the age-grade. The age-grade consisted of youngsters that belong to the same age-group. The senior age-group maintained peace and order in the village and also provided security to ward off external attacks, while the junior age-group concentrated on the sanitation of the community and other necessary duties.

(iv)the ‘Ozo‘ title holders. This expensive title was conferred on wealthy and influential men in the community who after getting the title become recognized and could then preside over meetings with the village elders.

(v)they were believed to be the mouthpiece of the gods e.g. Aro’s long juju. Even the council of elders consulted the priests on matters that were beyond their powers i.e. matters that needed spiritual intervention.

Number 4

i. The Nature of Islam:

The nature of Islam as a religion accepting polygamy to some extent, its tolerance of traditional African religions, its simplicity of doctrine and mode of worship helped propagators to make converts in Africa. These factors also made Islam easily adaptable to the African communities with which it came in contact. Again, the Islamisation of Africa was paralleled by the Africanisation of Islam. The making and sale of charms and amulets, which were believed to offer protection against evil forces and generally ensure success in life, were important in winning over converts.

Another major reason that led to the rapid spread of Islam in West Africa was the trans-Saharan trade network. From the seventh century onwards, Muslim traders from the Maghreb and the Sahara started settling first in some of the market centres in the Sahel and then in the Savanna areas. Al-Bakri, a renowned Arabic Scholar and merchant wrote in 1067, that the capital of ancient Ghana was already divided into two parts; about six miles apart, the Muslim traders’ part which had as many as twelve mosques and the King’s part had one mosque for the use of the king’s Muslim visitors. It was these resident Muslim traders who converted the rulers and the principal local town’s people to Islam. Also, according to Kano Chronicles, during the reign of Yaji, the King of Kano from 1349 to 1385, the Wangarawa came from Melle bringing the Mohammedan religion. These examples grew the process of Islamisation or conversion to Islam, as it gathered momentum.

iii. Activities of Muslim Clerics:

Islam also spread into West Africa through the activities of Muslim clerics, marabouts and scholars or mallams. These clerics or learned men founded their own religious centres which attracted students from all parts of the Western Sudan and who on the completion of their studies and training went back to their own homes to win converts. Many of them went on lecture or missionary tours to convert people, while others became advisers to Sudanese Kings on how to become effective rulers. Some clerics devoted a great deal of their time to writing books and instructions on all aspects of Islam for the education and conversion of people or the purification and strengthening of Islam. Some examples of clerics follow:

Ibu Khadija al-Kumi, a Muslim missionary and Abu Ishaq al-Sahili, a poet, scholar and architect from Granada were both invited by Mansa Musa to accompany him on his return from his celebrated pilgrimage in 1324/5. Both of them settled in Mali where they taught Islam. Al-Sahili also designed the great mosque of Timbuktu as well as a magnificent palace for Mansa Musa in the capital of Mali.

Again, the great Mande scholar, Abd Rahman Zaite (now identified as Abd al-Rahman Jakhite) settled in Kano on the invitation of Rumfa, the King of Kano. He built a mosque and introduced the practice of Koran recital and other devotional exercises.

Another brilliant Berber scholar called Abd al-Rahman al-Maghili (1477-78) established his Zawiyaie Islamic school in Tuat in the Sahara, and from there went on a missionary tour of the Western Sudan which lasted from 1492 to 1503. During this tour, he visited Air, Takedda, Kano, Katsina and Gao and preached to both rulers and commoners.

iv. Activities of Rulers:

Islam gained ground in West Africa through the activities of the individual rulers. The rulers of the Western Sudan encouraged the trans-Saharan trade and extended hospitality to both traders and visiting clerics, but perhaps one of the most important ways in which they encouraged acceptance of Islam was through their own conversion. With a Muslim King or ruler it rapidly became a matter of prestige among the aristocracy also to convert to Islam in many kingdoms. Many rulers made considerable efforts to encourage Muslim institutions such as Islamic tax and legal systems or the provision of facilities such as mosques, through the appointment of Muslim officials such as judges and butchers who observe the Islamic code and to lead prayers, celebrating Muslim festival and ordering every town under their control to observe the ritual prayers. The pilgrimages that many of the rulers undertook – such as Mansa Musa and Askia Mohammed — had a considerable spiritual effect increasing their determination both to strengthen and purify Islam and to spread it even further.

v. Holy War:

What is more, another way in which Islam was introduced and spread in West Africa in general and the Western Sudan in particular was the militant jihad, or the waging of holy war against infidels or lukewarm Muslims. This method allowed the third and final stage of the process of Islamisation to reach its climax with the nineteenth-century jihad in the Western Sudan, between Mali and Senegambia and Hausaland in northern Nigeria.

The first jihad in the Western Sudan which has accounts was that waged by the head of the Sudanese confederation. It was Tarsina against the Sudanese people in 1023, soon after his return from the pilgrimage to Mecca. He was killed during these clashes. The second is that of the King of Takrur, War-Ajabbi, before his death in 1040. The third and the best known of these early jihads was the one declared by the Almoravid movement of ancient Ghana between 1048 and 1054 by the scholar, Abdallah Ibn Yasin. Between 1056 and 1070s, the Almoravid conquered the whole area between ancient Ghana and Sijilmasa. By 1087 the Almoravid Empire stretched from the Senegal in the south across the Mediterranean to Spain in the north.

vi. Inter-marriage:

Islam also spread on to West Africa through inter-marriages. The Muslim merchants from North Africa came down settled and married the African women who became Muslims including their children.

(6a)
i. The constitutions enacted during this period were the Clifford Constitution in 1922.

ii. The Richards Constitution in 1946.

iii. The Macpherson Constitution in 1951.

iv. The Lyttleton Constitution in 1954.

v. In 1946 a new constitution was approved by Westminster and promulgated in Nigeria.

(6b)

i. In the executive council, The ministers were not given portfolios. They acted as mere officers of government. They had no power to issue orders to their directors. However, they were collectively responsible for all policy decisions.

ii. There were also criticism, on the creation of unequal status and adoption of two houses of legislature (bicameral in the Northern and Western regions only).

iii. The continued appointment of special members in the House of Representatives, House of assembly and the Electoral college system of election, were some of the serious criticisms.

iv. Even though the 1951 constitution was the result of series of consultations with the various levels of government and educated elites, it received some criticisms from the Nigerian nationalists who saw it as a constitution built on compromise.

v. It could be stated that the 1951 constitution enjoyed wide publicity. Generally the constitution could be seen as constitution that recognized the demands of the people.

(8)
(i) Ethnically based Federal Regions, with uneven size and power:
The first structural weakness which set the First Republic in Nigeria for political crisis was its ethnically- based federal regions and the asymmetry in size and power between them. Upon independence, Nigeria was composed of three federating regions: Northern, Eastern and Western regions. (Later in 1963 a new region, the Mid-West, was carved out of the West following a crisis in that region). Each of the regions was dominated by one of the country’s three largest ethnic groups: Hausa-Fulani in the North, Yoruba in the West and Igbo in the East. This arrangement presided over by the dominant ethnic groups placed minorities at a considerable disadvantage in the competition for jobs and resources at the regional level.

(ii) Ethno-Regional Political Parties:
The second structural weakness which afflicted the First Republic was the emotive association between political party and ethno- regional identity. This meant politics largely “revolved around ethnic-based regional…parties”. Reflecting the tripodal ethnic balance, three parties bestrode the political scene like titans and thus shaped the destiny of the First Republic: Northern People’s Congress (NPC), the Action Group (AG), and the National Council of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC). All three parties originally emerged out of ethno-cultural associations: NPC from Jam’iyar Mutanen Arewa (Association of Peoples of the North) AG from Egbe omo Oduduwa (Society for the Descendants of Oduduwa.

(iii) The political alignment which formed after the 1959 election:
It can be argued that the political constellation which emerged after the 1959 election was the most potent of the young republic’s structural weaknesses. It had huge impacts on the stability of the soon to be an independent nation. The North-South governing coalition between the NPC and the NCNC, variously described as “unnatural”, a coalition of “strange bedfellows”, only accentuated the republic’s structural imbalances. On immediate observations, it was certainly a partnership of unequal – with the NPC being by far the more powerful of the two governing parties. This meant the NCNC was always acutely sensitive to the tenuousness of its share of power.

(iv) The fear of ethnic domination:
The last and deepest of the structural weaknesses was the fear of ethnic domination which pervaded the politics of the First Republic. The Yorubas and Igbos in the two southern regions feared that the Hausa-Fulanis would use the North’s demographic preponderance to perpetuate northern hegemony and monopolise federal resources for their region; Hausa-Fulanis, in turn, feared that in an open contest, the Yorubas and Igbos, being the more educated, would dominate the political and economic structures of the federation.

(v) The disintegration of the AG, 1962-63:
The collapse of the AG’s political power between 1962 and 1963 produced far-reaching effects. The crisis that engulfed the party stemmed from its “staggering defeat” in 1959. It had been ‘relegated’ to the opposition. The NCNC had made impressive inroads into its regional heartland, securing for itself 21 seats in the AG’s political turf by exploiting minority discontent within the Western Region.