(1ai) A cell is the smallest unit that can live on its own and that makes up all living organisms and the tissues of the body. A cell has three main parts: the cell membrane, the nucleus, and the cytoplasm. The cell membrane surrounds the cell and controls the substances that go into and out of the cell.
(1aii) (i) Robert Hooke (ii) Felix Dujardin (iii) Mathias Schleiden
(1bii) Red blood cell
(1biii) It does not replicate itself but rather die off
(1c) (i) Nucleus (ii) Cell membrane (iii) Cytoplasm (iv) Chloroplast (v) Mitochondrion (vi) Golgi body
Milk teeth: is a temporary tooth of a young mammal especially one of the human dentition including four incisors, two canines, and four molars in each jaw which fall out during childhood and are replaced by the permanent teeth.
3ai) Ecological niche is a term for the position of a species within an ecosystem, describing both the range of conditions necessary for persistence of the species, and its ecological role in the ecosystem.
3aii) provide fruit, firewood, poles, organic matter for soil amendment, living fence post, shade, soil conservation cattle feed
(4ai) It states that the amount of the conserved quantity at a point or within a volume can only change by the amount of the quantity which flows in or out of the volume.
(4aii) – Conservation of mass and energy – Conservation of linear momentum, conservation of angular momentum – Conservation of electric charge (4bi) – Lax and broken regulation systems
– Highly-priced and valued animal parts, products, and pets
(4c) – Loss of biodiversity, migration of wildlife – Exological imbalance – Soil erosion – Disruption in hydrological cycle of water catchment area
(4di) A blood transfusion is a routine medical procedure in which donated blood is provided to you through a narrow tube placed within a vein in your arm. This potentially life-saving procedure can help replace blood lost due.
(4dii) An antigen is any substance to which the immune system can respond. For example, components of the bacterial cell wall can trigger severe and immediate attacks by neutrophils.
5a) a) Euphotic Zone. (Sunlight Zone). b) Dysphotic Zone (Twilight Zone). c) Aphotic Zone. (5bi) Population is defined as a group of individuals of the same species living and interbreeding within a given area. (5b) i) Pooter ii) Sweep net (5c) i) Freezing. ii) Canning. iii) Smoking. iv) Frying. (5di) Tropism is a growth toward or away from a stimulus. Common stimuli that influence plant growth include light, gravity, water, and touch. Common tropic responses in plants include phototropism, gravitropism, thigmotropism, hydrotropism, thermotropism, and chemotropism. 5dii) i) Nastic response ii) Tactic response =======================
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Waec Biology Answers 2022
Friday, 10th June 2022
Biology 2 (Essay) 09:30am – 11:10am
Biology 1 (Objective) 11:10am – 12:00noon
Waec 2022 Biology Questions and Answers
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BOTH TYPED ANSWERS AND THE IMAGE ANSWERS ARE CORRECT. 100% ==============================
(1a) Political socialization is the process of acquisition and transmission of political knowledge and value by individuals from one generation to another.
(1b) A nation simply means a group or body of people who share the same opinion, interest, judgment, political aspirations and consciousness and united by common ties.
Hence, below are the features of a nation : (i) geographical (ii) homogeneous cultural (iii) religious (iv) Homogeneous attributes and traditions. ===================================
(2) (i) Constitutional division of power: Powers are constitutionally shared between the central authority and other component units. (ii) Written and Rigid constitution: Codification of constitution on a single document/book which is difficult to amend. (iii) Powers derived from the constitution: The three tiers of government derived their powers from the constitution. (iv) Supremacy of the constitution: Constitution/law is strictly adhered as a regulation which everybody is subject to. (v) Separation of power: Adoption of the theory of separation of power which enables the arms of government to function independently in order not to have clash of powers. ================================
(3a) A public corporation may be defined as a business organisation established, owned, managed and financed with tax payers money by government of a country with the main motive of making profit but to render essential services to members of the public.
(3b) (i) Financial Control: The accounts of public corporations are audited from time to time by government Auditors and a copy of the Auditors’ report is submitted to the Minister which he presents to the parliament and this prevents financial mismanagement. (ii) Judicial Control: As a legal entity which can sue and be sued, a public corporation can be dragged to court if it fails to act within the limits set by the law that established it and its action declared ultra vires. (iii) Ministerial Control: Ministers that are answerable to the parliament are given extensive power over public corporations. These include powers to appoint and dismiss members of Board of Directors, determination of remunerations, conditions of service, approving all loans and major expenditures etc. (iv) Public Control: Members of the public who consume goods and services of the public corporations exercise some form of control through criticisms they level against these corporations. ================================
(5) (choose Any Five) (i)Law:This is an important condition to the liberty of an individual.
(ii)Democracy: Under democracy political power is with the masses and so freedom is guaranteed.
(iii)power distribution:when powers are decentralized, more likely,men will be zealous for freedom.
(iv)vigilance: This is a sure safeguard vyo freedom.This means that citizens are alert and ready to fight any unreasonable interferences with their rights.
(v)independence of the judiciary: The essential of this to freedom of the individual cannot be underestimated. The judiciary and judges should be free from the interference of the executive and legislature.
(vi)Fundamental human rights: It is usually entrenched in a written constitution ,embodying the civil and political rights of the citizens and placing some limitations on the powers of those in government. ==================================
(6) (Choose Any Five) (i)Shortage of fund: The involvement of this organization in large scale operation affects its financial resources. This has created over time, shortage of funds.
(ii)Sovereignty of nation: The U.N.O cannot effectively enforce its decision because member states are not ready to surrender their sovereignty to the authority of the organization.
(iii)The veto power: Each of the five permanent members of the security council has veto power. This could be used at times to satisfy their selfish interest at the expense of fulfilling the objectives of the organization.
(iv)poverty: The inability of the united nation to effectively address the issue of poverty among member states.
(v)Revolution of conflicts: Inability of U.N.O to resolve conflicts among some member nation e.g Israel.
(vi)Difference in ideology: There difference in ideology, culture, politics, and methods used in pursuing economic goal. This may negate the evolution of lasting peace in the world. =====================================
(8ai) (i)National party of Nigeria (NDN) Alhaji shehu shagari. (ii)The unity party of Nigeria chief obafemi awolowo. (iii)The great Nigeria people party (GNPP) Waziri Ibrahim
(8b) (i)Since independence, political party have showed that they are loyal to the electorate during campaign and would serve their Interest of vote to power. (ii)They usually organize membership to reach all corners of the country (iii)They have showed that their main objectives are to contests election,win and grow the country by all means ========================================
(9) (i) Costly to run: The constitution operates a presidential system with duplication of political function thereby making it too expensive and costly. (ii) Impeachment: The impeachment clause as stipulated in the constitution could be obeyed by the lawmakers. (iii) Execution of programme: Separation of powers could result to delay in the implementation or carrying out of government programmes. (iv) Activities in Government: This could be brought to stand-still because there was a problem between the executive and the legislature. (v) Concentration of powers: The criticism that both executive president as both head of state and head of government has too much powers concentrated in him, creating the room for abuse of power.
(2) (i) Subsistence and Commercial Activities: Agriculture is the main economic activity. Grain is the staple diet, including Guinea corn, millet, maize, and rice. The Hausa also grow and eat root crops and a variety of vegetables. Cotton and peanuts are processed and used locally, but part of the harvest is exported. The Hausa practice intercropping and double-cropping; their main implement is the hoe.
(ii) Industrial Arts: There are full-time specialists only where there is an assured market for craft products. Men’s crafts include tanning, leatherworking, saddling, weaving, dying, woodworking, and smithing. Iron has been mined, smelted, and worked as far back as there are Hausa traditions.
(iii) Trade: Trade is complicated and varied. Some traders deal in a particular market, as distinguished from those who trade in many markets over a long distance. This dual trade strategy, augmented by the contributions of the Cattle Fulani, enabled the Hausa to meet all of their requirements, even during the nineteenth century.
(iv) Division of Labor: Hausa society traditionally observes several divisions of labor: in public administration, it is primarily men who may be appointed, although some women hold appointed positions in the palace. Class determines what sort of work one might do, and gender determines work roles. When women engage in income-producing activities, they may keep what they earn
(v) Land Tenure: The rural householder farms with his sons’ help; from the old farm, he allocates to them small plots, which he enlarges as they mature. New family fields are cleared from the bush.
(3) (i)Each Igbo village was seen as a political unit inhabited by related families who were bounded by common beliefs and origin. Each family head in the village held the ‘Ofo‘ title and altogether formed the council of elders.
(iii)Among the council of elders, one was recognized as the most senior to others. He was the ‘Okpara‘. He could call for and adjourn a meeting, and could also give judgements as well.
(iii)the age-grade. The age-grade consisted of youngsters that belong to the same age-group. The senior age-group maintained peace and order in the village and also provided security to ward off external attacks, while the junior age-group concentrated on the sanitation of the community and other necessary duties.
(iv)the ‘Ozo‘ title holders. This expensive title was conferred on wealthy and influential men in the community who after getting the title become recognized and could then preside over meetings with the village elders.
(v)they were believed to be the mouthpiece of the gods e.g. Aro’s long juju. Even the council of elders consulted the priests on matters that were beyond their powers i.e. matters that needed spiritual intervention.
i. The Nature of Islam:
The nature of Islam as a religion accepting polygamy to some extent, its tolerance of traditional African religions, its simplicity of doctrine and mode of worship helped propagators to make converts in Africa. These factors also made Islam easily adaptable to the African communities with which it came in contact. Again, the Islamisation of Africa was paralleled by the Africanisation of Islam. The making and sale of charms and amulets, which were believed to offer protection against evil forces and generally ensure success in life, were important in winning over converts.
Another major reason that led to the rapid spread of Islam in West Africa was the trans-Saharan trade network. From the seventh century onwards, Muslim traders from the Maghreb and the Sahara started settling first in some of the market centres in the Sahel and then in the Savanna areas. Al-Bakri, a renowned Arabic Scholar and merchant wrote in 1067, that the capital of ancient Ghana was already divided into two parts; about six miles apart, the Muslim traders’ part which had as many as twelve mosques and the King’s part had one mosque for the use of the king’s Muslim visitors. It was these resident Muslim traders who converted the rulers and the principal local town’s people to Islam. Also, according to Kano Chronicles, during the reign of Yaji, the King of Kano from 1349 to 1385, the Wangarawa came from Melle bringing the Mohammedan religion. These examples grew the process of Islamisation or conversion to Islam, as it gathered momentum.
iii. Activities of Muslim Clerics:
Islam also spread into West Africa through the activities of Muslim clerics, marabouts and scholars or mallams. These clerics or learned men founded their own religious centres which attracted students from all parts of the Western Sudan and who on the completion of their studies and training went back to their own homes to win converts. Many of them went on lecture or missionary tours to convert people, while others became advisers to Sudanese Kings on how to become effective rulers. Some clerics devoted a great deal of their time to writing books and instructions on all aspects of Islam for the education and conversion of people or the purification and strengthening of Islam. Some examples of clerics follow:
Ibu Khadija al-Kumi, a Muslim missionary and Abu Ishaq al-Sahili, a poet, scholar and architect from Granada were both invited by Mansa Musa to accompany him on his return from his celebrated pilgrimage in 1324/5. Both of them settled in Mali where they taught Islam. Al-Sahili also designed the great mosque of Timbuktu as well as a magnificent palace for Mansa Musa in the capital of Mali.
Again, the great Mande scholar, Abd Rahman Zaite (now identified as Abd al-Rahman Jakhite) settled in Kano on the invitation of Rumfa, the King of Kano. He built a mosque and introduced the practice of Koran recital and other devotional exercises.
Another brilliant Berber scholar called Abd al-Rahman al-Maghili (1477-78) established his Zawiyaie Islamic school in Tuat in the Sahara, and from there went on a missionary tour of the Western Sudan which lasted from 1492 to 1503. During this tour, he visited Air, Takedda, Kano, Katsina and Gao and preached to both rulers and commoners.
iv. Activities of Rulers:
Islam gained ground in West Africa through the activities of the individual rulers. The rulers of the Western Sudan encouraged the trans-Saharan trade and extended hospitality to both traders and visiting clerics, but perhaps one of the most important ways in which they encouraged acceptance of Islam was through their own conversion. With a Muslim King or ruler it rapidly became a matter of prestige among the aristocracy also to convert to Islam in many kingdoms. Many rulers made considerable efforts to encourage Muslim institutions such as Islamic tax and legal systems or the provision of facilities such as mosques, through the appointment of Muslim officials such as judges and butchers who observe the Islamic code and to lead prayers, celebrating Muslim festival and ordering every town under their control to observe the ritual prayers. The pilgrimages that many of the rulers undertook – such as Mansa Musa and Askia Mohammed — had a considerable spiritual effect increasing their determination both to strengthen and purify Islam and to spread it even further.
v. Holy War:
What is more, another way in which Islam was introduced and spread in West Africa in general and the Western Sudan in particular was the militant jihad, or the waging of holy war against infidels or lukewarm Muslims. This method allowed the third and final stage of the process of Islamisation to reach its climax with the nineteenth-century jihad in the Western Sudan, between Mali and Senegambia and Hausaland in northern Nigeria.
The first jihad in the Western Sudan which has accounts was that waged by the head of the Sudanese confederation. It was Tarsina against the Sudanese people in 1023, soon after his return from the pilgrimage to Mecca. He was killed during these clashes. The second is that of the King of Takrur, War-Ajabbi, before his death in 1040. The third and the best known of these early jihads was the one declared by the Almoravid movement of ancient Ghana between 1048 and 1054 by the scholar, Abdallah Ibn Yasin. Between 1056 and 1070s, the Almoravid conquered the whole area between ancient Ghana and Sijilmasa. By 1087 the Almoravid Empire stretched from the Senegal in the south across the Mediterranean to Spain in the north.
Islam also spread on to West Africa through inter-marriages. The Muslim merchants from North Africa came down settled and married the African women who became Muslims including their children.
(6a) i. The constitutions enacted during this period were the Clifford Constitution in 1922.
ii. The Richards Constitution in 1946.
iii. The Macpherson Constitution in 1951.
iv. The Lyttleton Constitution in 1954.
v. In 1946 a new constitution was approved by Westminster and promulgated in Nigeria.
i. In the executive council, The ministers were not given portfolios. They acted as mere officers of government. They had no power to issue orders to their directors. However, they were collectively responsible for all policy decisions.
ii. There were also criticism, on the creation of unequal status and adoption of two houses of legislature (bicameral in the Northern and Western regions only).
iii. The continued appointment of special members in the House of Representatives, House of assembly and the Electoral college system of election, were some of the serious criticisms.
iv. Even though the 1951 constitution was the result of series of consultations with the various levels of government and educated elites, it received some criticisms from the Nigerian nationalists who saw it as a constitution built on compromise.
v. It could be stated that the 1951 constitution enjoyed wide publicity. Generally the constitution could be seen as constitution that recognized the demands of the people.
(8) (i) Ethnically based Federal Regions, with uneven size and power: The first structural weakness which set the First Republic in Nigeria for political crisis was its ethnically- based federal regions and the asymmetry in size and power between them. Upon independence, Nigeria was composed of three federating regions: Northern, Eastern and Western regions. (Later in 1963 a new region, the Mid-West, was carved out of the West following a crisis in that region). Each of the regions was dominated by one of the country’s three largest ethnic groups: Hausa-Fulani in the North, Yoruba in the West and Igbo in the East. This arrangement presided over by the dominant ethnic groups placed minorities at a considerable disadvantage in the competition for jobs and resources at the regional level.
(ii) Ethno-Regional Political Parties: The second structural weakness which afflicted the First Republic was the emotive association between political party and ethno- regional identity. This meant politics largely “revolved around ethnic-based regional…parties”. Reflecting the tripodal ethnic balance, three parties bestrode the political scene like titans and thus shaped the destiny of the First Republic: Northern People’s Congress (NPC), the Action Group (AG), and the National Council of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC). All three parties originally emerged out of ethno-cultural associations: NPC from Jam’iyar Mutanen Arewa (Association of Peoples of the North) AG from Egbe omo Oduduwa (Society for the Descendants of Oduduwa.
(iii) The political alignment which formed after the 1959 election: It can be argued that the political constellation which emerged after the 1959 election was the most potent of the young republic’s structural weaknesses. It had huge impacts on the stability of the soon to be an independent nation. The North-South governing coalition between the NPC and the NCNC, variously described as “unnatural”, a coalition of “strange bedfellows”, only accentuated the republic’s structural imbalances. On immediate observations, it was certainly a partnership of unequal – with the NPC being by far the more powerful of the two governing parties. This meant the NCNC was always acutely sensitive to the tenuousness of its share of power.
(iv) The fear of ethnic domination: The last and deepest of the structural weaknesses was the fear of ethnic domination which pervaded the politics of the First Republic. The Yorubas and Igbos in the two southern regions feared that the Hausa-Fulanis would use the North’s demographic preponderance to perpetuate northern hegemony and monopolise federal resources for their region; Hausa-Fulanis, in turn, feared that in an open contest, the Yorubas and Igbos, being the more educated, would dominate the political and economic structures of the federation.
(v) The disintegration of the AG, 1962-63: The collapse of the AG’s political power between 1962 and 1963 produced far-reaching effects. The crisis that engulfed the party stemmed from its “staggering defeat” in 1959. It had been ‘relegated’ to the opposition. The NCNC had made impressive inroads into its regional heartland, securing for itself 21 seats in the AG’s political turf by exploiting minority discontent within the Western Region.
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