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Waec 2022 Agricultural Science Questions and Answers
Tuesday, 21st June 2022
- Agricultural Science 2 (Essay) 2:00 hrs. – 4:10pm
- Agricultural Science 1 (Objective) 4:10pm – 5:00pm
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE ESSAY
(i) To safeguard farmers against unreasonable eviction
(ii) To ensure that agricultural land is not unnecessarily diverted to non-agricultural purposes
(iii) To make large tracts of land available for government-sponsored development of large scale farms
(iv) To carry out large scale improvement such as irrigation, drainage and soil water conservation
(i) It can handle more areas per unit of time
(ii) It works faster and more efficient
(iii) It can perform a wide range of operation
(iv) It reduces cost of labor and total cost of production
(i) Seed tube: They conduct seeds from feed cups to the furrow lines
(ii) Furrow opener: It creates a well-defined groove in the soil where the seed can be placed at the proper depth
(iii) Hopper: holds particulate matter or flow-able material of any sort
(iv) Seed metering device: to collect seed in a singular or group fashion
(v) Furrow wheel: To stabilize the plough and take side thrust
(i) Power threshers
(ii) Milling machine
(iii) Winnowing machine
(i) Monocropping: The practice of growing a single crop year after year on the same land.
(ii) Mixed cropping: It involves the growing of two or more species or cultivars of the same species simultaneously in the same field.
(iii) Mixed farming: It is a type of farming which involves both the growing of crops and the raising of livestock.
(iv) Crop rotation: the practice of growing a series of different types of crops in the same area across a sequence of growing seasons.
(i) Anhydrous ammonia
(ii) Ammonium sulfate
(iv) Urea-ammonium nitrate
(iii) Old brood comb
(v) Lemongrass essential oil
(i) Storage pests: During storage, pests can infest crops if storage is not properly done.
(ii) Moisture: Maize can be destroyed if water finds its way into the maize grains.
(iii) Temperature: Maize will be destroyed during storage if temperature is not adequate
(iv) Poor aeration: When Maize grains during storage do not have access to moderate aeration, they can be damaged.
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Mendel’s first law states that genes are present in pairs in non-reproductive cells so that each gamete contains only one contrasting factor. [SEGREGATION]
Mendel’s second law states that when more than one pair of factors are considered, each pair segregates independently of every other pair.[INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT]
(PICK ANY TWO)
(i) It increases the nutrient level of the soil
(ii) It ensures balsnced ration for livestocks while grazing
(iii) It reduces cost of feeding livestocks
(v) It reduces the attack of pests
(i) Balanced diet: This is a diet consisting balanced amounts in proper proportions of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water intake for healthy growth and for efficient daily activities and functions.
(ii) Maintenance ration: This is the amount of feed given to an animal that are just enough to enable the animal carry out its important functions like respiration, digestion, regulation of body temperature. It does not allow for an increase or decrease in body weight or production.
(iii) Production ration: This is the amount of nutrients supplied to animals in excess of those needed for maintenance. The excess nutrients are thus used for productive purposes such as meat, egg and milk production. The quantity and quality determine the magnitude of increase in production.
(iv) Malnutrition: This refers to deficiencies or excesses in nutrient intake, imbalance of essential nutrients or impaired nutrient utilization.
(PICK ANY SIX)
(i) Retarded growth.
(ii) Low production of eggs.
(iii) Decrease in milk production.
(iv) High mortality rate in young animals.
(v) Presence of farm animal diseases.
(vi) Physical deformities.
(vii) Weight loss/emaciation.
(viii) Poor appearance.
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(i) Subsistence and Commercial Activities:
Agriculture is the main economic activity. Grain is the staple diet, including Guinea corn, millet, maize, and rice. The Hausa also grow and eat root crops and a variety of vegetables. Cotton and peanuts are processed and used locally, but part of the harvest is exported. The Hausa practice intercropping and double-cropping; their main implement is the hoe.
(ii) Industrial Arts:
There are full-time specialists only where there is an assured market for craft products. Men’s crafts include tanning, leatherworking, saddling, weaving, dying, woodworking, and smithing. Iron has been mined, smelted, and worked as far back as there are Hausa traditions.
Trade is complicated and varied. Some traders deal in a particular market, as distinguished from those who trade in many markets over a long distance. This dual trade strategy, augmented by the contributions of the Cattle Fulani, enabled the Hausa to meet all of their requirements, even during the nineteenth century.
(iv) Division of Labor:
Hausa society traditionally observes several divisions of labor: in public administration, it is primarily men who may be appointed, although some women hold appointed positions in the palace. Class determines what sort of work one might do, and gender determines work roles. When women engage in income-producing activities, they may keep what they earn
(v) Land Tenure:
The rural householder farms with his sons’ help; from the old farm, he allocates to them small plots, which he enlarges as they mature. New family fields are cleared from the bush.
(i)Each Igbo village was seen as a political unit inhabited by related families who were bounded by common beliefs and origin. Each family head in the village held the ‘Ofo‘ title and altogether formed the council of elders.
(iii)Among the council of elders, one was recognized as the most senior to others. He was the ‘Okpara‘. He could call for and adjourn a meeting, and could also give judgements as well.
(iii)the age-grade. The age-grade consisted of youngsters that belong to the same age-group. The senior age-group maintained peace and order in the village and also provided security to ward off external attacks, while the junior age-group concentrated on the sanitation of the community and other necessary duties.
(iv)the ‘Ozo‘ title holders. This expensive title was conferred on wealthy and influential men in the community who after getting the title become recognized and could then preside over meetings with the village elders.
(v)they were believed to be the mouthpiece of the gods e.g. Aro’s long juju. Even the council of elders consulted the priests on matters that were beyond their powers i.e. matters that needed spiritual intervention.
i. The Nature of Islam:
The nature of Islam as a religion accepting polygamy to some extent, its tolerance of traditional African religions, its simplicity of doctrine and mode of worship helped propagators to make converts in Africa. These factors also made Islam easily adaptable to the African communities with which it came in contact. Again, the Islamisation of Africa was paralleled by the Africanisation of Islam. The making and sale of charms and amulets, which were believed to offer protection against evil forces and generally ensure success in life, were important in winning over converts.
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Another major reason that led to the rapid spread of Islam in West Africa was the trans-Saharan trade network. From the seventh century onwards, Muslim traders from the Maghreb and the Sahara started settling first in some of the market centres in the Sahel and then in the Savanna areas. Al-Bakri, a renowned Arabic Scholar and merchant wrote in 1067, that the capital of ancient Ghana was already divided into two parts; about six miles apart, the Muslim traders’ part which had as many as twelve mosques and the King’s part had one mosque for the use of the king’s Muslim visitors. It was these resident Muslim traders who converted the rulers and the principal local town’s people to Islam. Also, according to Kano Chronicles, during the reign of Yaji, the King of Kano from 1349 to 1385, the Wangarawa came from Melle bringing the Mohammedan religion. These examples grew the process of Islamisation or conversion to Islam, as it gathered momentum.
iii. Activities of Muslim Clerics:
Islam also spread into West Africa through the activities of Muslim clerics, marabouts and scholars or mallams. These clerics or learned men founded their own religious centres which attracted students from all parts of the Western Sudan and who on the completion of their studies and training went back to their own homes to win converts. Many of them went on lecture or missionary tours to convert people, while others became advisers to Sudanese Kings on how to become effective rulers. Some clerics devoted a great deal of their time to writing books and instructions on all aspects of Islam for the education and conversion of people or the purification and strengthening of Islam. Some examples of clerics follow:
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Ibu Khadija al-Kumi, a Muslim missionary and Abu Ishaq al-Sahili, a poet, scholar and architect from Granada were both invited by Mansa Musa to accompany him on his return from his celebrated pilgrimage in 1324/5. Both of them settled in Mali where they taught Islam. Al-Sahili also designed the great mosque of Timbuktu as well as a magnificent palace for Mansa Musa in the capital of Mali.
Again, the great Mande scholar, Abd Rahman Zaite (now identified as Abd al-Rahman Jakhite) settled in Kano on the invitation of Rumfa, the King of Kano. He built a mosque and introduced the practice of Koran recital and other devotional exercises.
Another brilliant Berber scholar called Abd al-Rahman al-Maghili (1477-78) established his Zawiyaie Islamic school in Tuat in the Sahara, and from there went on a missionary tour of the Western Sudan which lasted from 1492 to 1503. During this tour, he visited Air, Takedda, Kano, Katsina and Gao and preached to both rulers and commoners.
iv. Activities of Rulers:
Islam gained ground in West Africa through the activities of the individual rulers. The rulers of the Western Sudan encouraged the trans-Saharan trade and extended hospitality to both traders and visiting clerics, but perhaps one of the most important ways in which they encouraged acceptance of Islam was through their own conversion. With a Muslim King or ruler it rapidly became a matter of prestige among the aristocracy also to convert to Islam in many kingdoms. Many rulers made considerable efforts to encourage Muslim institutions such as Islamic tax and legal systems or the provision of facilities such as mosques, through the appointment of Muslim officials such as judges and butchers who observe the Islamic code and to lead prayers, celebrating Muslim festival and ordering every town under their control to observe the ritual prayers. The pilgrimages that many of the rulers undertook – such as Mansa Musa and Askia Mohammed — had a considerable spiritual effect increasing their determination both to strengthen and purify Islam and to spread it even further.
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v. Holy War:
What is more, another way in which Islam was introduced and spread in West Africa in general and the Western Sudan in particular was the militant jihad, or the waging of holy war against infidels or lukewarm Muslims. This method allowed the third and final stage of the process of Islamisation to reach its climax with the nineteenth-century jihad in the Western Sudan, between Mali and Senegambia and Hausaland in northern Nigeria.
The first jihad in the Western Sudan which has accounts was that waged by the head of the Sudanese confederation. It was Tarsina against the Sudanese people in 1023, soon after his return from the pilgrimage to Mecca. He was killed during these clashes. The second is that of the King of Takrur, War-Ajabbi, before his death in 1040. The third and the best known of these early jihads was the one declared by the Almoravid movement of ancient Ghana between 1048 and 1054 by the scholar, Abdallah Ibn Yasin. Between 1056 and 1070s, the Almoravid conquered the whole area between ancient Ghana and Sijilmasa. By 1087 the Almoravid Empire stretched from the Senegal in the south across the Mediterranean to Spain in the north.
Islam also spread on to West Africa through inter-marriages. The Muslim merchants from North Africa came down settled and married the African women who became Muslims including their children.
i. The constitutions enacted during this period were the Clifford Constitution in 1922.
ii. The Richards Constitution in 1946.
iii. The Macpherson Constitution in 1951.
iv. The Lyttleton Constitution in 1954.
v. In 1946 a new constitution was approved by Westminster and promulgated in Nigeria.
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i. In the executive council, The ministers were not given portfolios. They acted as mere officers of government. They had no power to issue orders to their directors. However, they were collectively responsible for all policy decisions.
ii. There were also criticism, on the creation of unequal status and adoption of two houses of legislature (bicameral in the Northern and Western regions only).
iii. The continued appointment of special members in the House of Representatives, House of assembly and the Electoral college system of election, were some of the serious criticisms.
iv. Even though the 1951 constitution was the result of series of consultations with the various levels of government and educated elites, it received some criticisms from the Nigerian nationalists who saw it as a constitution built on compromise.
v. It could be stated that the 1951 constitution enjoyed wide publicity. Generally the constitution could be seen as constitution that recognized the demands of the people.
(i) Ethnically based Federal Regions, with uneven size and power:
The first structural weakness which set the First Republic in Nigeria for political crisis was its ethnically- based federal regions and the asymmetry in size and power between them. Upon independence, Nigeria was composed of three federating regions: Northern, Eastern and Western regions. (Later in 1963 a new region, the Mid-West, was carved out of the West following a crisis in that region). Each of the regions was dominated by one of the country’s three largest ethnic groups: Hausa-Fulani in the North, Yoruba in the West and Igbo in the East. This arrangement presided over by the dominant ethnic groups placed minorities at a considerable disadvantage in the competition for jobs and resources at the regional level.
(ii) Ethno-Regional Political Parties:
The second structural weakness which afflicted the First Republic was the emotive association between political party and ethno- regional identity. This meant politics largely “revolved around ethnic-based regional…parties”. Reflecting the tripodal ethnic balance, three parties bestrode the political scene like titans and thus shaped the destiny of the First Republic: Northern People’s Congress (NPC), the Action Group (AG), and the National Council of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC). All three parties originally emerged out of ethno-cultural associations: NPC from Jam’iyar Mutanen Arewa (Association of Peoples of the North) AG from Egbe omo Oduduwa (Society for the Descendants of Oduduwa.
(iii) The political alignment which formed after the 1959 election:
It can be argued that the political constellation which emerged after the 1959 election was the most potent of the young republic’s structural weaknesses. It had huge impacts on the stability of the soon to be an independent nation. The North-South governing coalition between the NPC and the NCNC, variously described as “unnatural”, a coalition of “strange bedfellows”, only accentuated the republic’s structural imbalances. On immediate observations, it was certainly a partnership of unequal – with the NPC being by far the more powerful of the two governing parties. This meant the NCNC was always acutely sensitive to the tenuousness of its share of power.
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(iv) The fear of ethnic domination:
The last and deepest of the structural weaknesses was the fear of ethnic domination which pervaded the politics of the First Republic. The Yorubas and Igbos in the two southern regions feared that the Hausa-Fulanis would use the North’s demographic preponderance to perpetuate northern hegemony and monopolise federal resources for their region; Hausa-Fulanis, in turn, feared that in an open contest, the Yorubas and Igbos, being the more educated, would dominate the political and economic structures of the federation.
(v) The disintegration of the AG, 1962-63:
The collapse of the AG’s political power between 1962 and 1963 produced far-reaching effects. The crisis that engulfed the party stemmed from its “staggering defeat” in 1959. It had been ‘relegated’ to the opposition. The NCNC had made impressive inroads into its regional heartland, securing for itself 21 seats in the AG’s political turf by exploiting minority discontent within the Western Region.
The statement by the group’s Acting President, Chief Anthony Ofoni, called on Urhobo youths in the 24 kingdoms and other ethnic youth groups in Delta State to mobilise into the farmlands after the expiration of the ultimatum and evict the herdsmen..
“This is to inform the Fulanis of Usman Dan Fodio leadership that after 48 hours, open grazing of cattle by nomadic people will be forbidden in Delta Central Senatorial District.
“The safety of herdsmen and their cattles still in the region after the expiration of the notice will no longer be guaranteed because they have sacked some of our communities in Uwheru and killed many Abraka farmers and we viewed the threat as a big insult on all Deltans”.
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Reiterating it’s support for the decision of the 17 Southern Governors to put an end “to the old fashioned open grazing of cattle in the region”, the statement called on all ethnic youth groups to come out enmasse to defend their fatherlands, Delta State by chasing out the killer headsmen from the State.
Meanwhile, NAPS, in an open letter to the President signed by its Senate President, Comrade Dio Oghale Emeka Rex, frowned at the threat over Governor Ifeanyi Okowa’s support for the ban on open grazing in the Southern part of Nigeria.
(i) Religious Influence; Islam encourages the traditional teachings of brotherhood, generosity, sexual discipline, honesty, orderliness, kindness and mutual love. Polytheism which initially prevailed was replaced with monotheism, the central theme of Islamic teaching. Traditional rituals that paid homage or reverence to natural objects were regarded as acts of idolatry; the most heinous sin in Islam.
(ii) Educational Influence; The introduction of Islam to Nigeria was important because Arabic is regarded as the language of Islam, as performing some Islamic rituals required mastery of the language. As a result, many Qur’anic and Arabic schools sprung up in all places where Islam was launched.
(iii) Influence on Language; The adoption of Arabic language as an academic discipline in Nigeria paved the way for language diffusion. Some loan words in several Nigerian languages come from Arabic language, and were imported into Islam.
(iv) Social Influence; Islam also influenced many other parts of social life of Nigerian communities. One feature common to several Nigerian communities’ culture is that they fully respect their traditional rulers.
(v)Absolute attributes: God possesses infinite attributes of perfection that are inseparable from His essence (i.e., they are not achieved through acquisition), such as knowledge, power, wisdom, justice, and more. All perfection is from Him and terminates with Him.
God is He who
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(i)The Aare is also to foster unity among the Yorubas and become a rallying point for the promotion of Yoruba culture and tradition. In this regard, he must work assiduously with other eminent personalities in the Southwest to actualise a common front on the issues that can advance both the Yoruba and national interests.
(ii)The Aare Ona Kakanfo title is a very sensitive position in Yorubaland. It was a title given to the generalissimo, the war general during the old Oyo Empire. At the time, an Aare Ona Kakanfo would lead battles, fight wars, mobilise, train soldiers and conquer the enemies. The introduction of the title was informed by the need to fortify the ancient, pre-colonial army of the old Oyo Empire, which at one time could boast of over 100,000 horsemen.
(i)They advised the Alaafin on good governance. And they helped in the maintenance of law and order. In other words They took part in the 3 installation of a new Alaafin.
(ii)They performed religious functions. And they performed judicial functions. In other words they assisted in the organization of youths for communal development
(iii)They took part in the selection of a ne% Alaafin. And they initiated laws. In other words they acted as checks on the powers of Oba e.g. removal of Alaafin from office. and they ensured implementation of policies
(i) Economic dependence and resource exploitation ; The basic idea behind colonization had aspects of economic dependency baked right into it. The British took the country’s resources, land and mineral included, leaving the natives dependent on them to generate funds.
(ii) Constant war and conflict; When Nigeria was overrun in the name of imperialism, it marked the beginning of conflict and war and these conflicts were largely fueled by the colonizers in a well-thought divide and rule strategy.
(iii) Loss of culture and identity; When the colonialists took over the country’s rule during the colonial era, the natives suffered a massive culture and identity loss. The British brought and imposed their culture, language, behaviour, beliefs, and other ways of life on the Nigerians. This then led to the natives abandoning some of their customs and culture in favour of those brought by the colonizers.
(iv) Loss of land One of the biggest reasons for British colonialism in Nigeria was the abundant resources. The British needed the land to create massive plantations for their economic gain.
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(v) Slave trade and humiliation; The introduction of colonialism into Nigeria, the twisted idea of the slave trade followed suit. At the time, the colonial masters needed slaves to work in their home countries or in the colonies. Additionally, imperialism reduced the status and prestige accorded to Nigerian leaders.
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Feminism is the pursuit by man or woman to secure more freedom or welfare for females in a place where men are essentially in control or decide what happens as in our culture or traditions. The novel is centred on the feminist quest of the heroine,Adah. This novel has many points in the narration where the heroine tries to question a poor treatment of females , assumptions about them or their being taken for granted.
On the very first page of the novel,the narrator informs that Adah “arrived when everyone was expecting and predicting a boy.” This indicates that society places more premium on the male than on the female. The narrator further remarks that the failure of Adah’s parents to record her birthday is because “She was such a disappointment to her parent,to her immediate family and to her tribe. Rather than encourage Adah to take up education,she being older ,but her younger brother is taken to school. As for the girl,” A year or two would do,as long as she can write her name and count”. This is not acceptable to Adah who not only force herself into Mr Cole’s class,but has to tell lies to obtain the two shillings to afford the cost of the entrance form.
Adah is compelled by the mother to choose elderly suitors who in the thinking of her mother would look after wives better. Adah is not moved by this view. She wants young suitors rather than those who she would have to treat as a master or refer to as “sir” even behind his back. Modern feminism is not so keen about marriage but Adah’s feminist temper initially saw marriage as an escape route out of homelessness . Then home she aspires to have is not one “there would be trouble today and fights tomorrow, but a good,quiet atmosphere”. Ironically , her marriage with Francis does not provide such a peaceful air.
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Queen Yoko is the Ruler of Mende chiefdom who is described to have a brain made from music. In history ,Yoko is seen by many of her subjects as a usurper and a friend of the colonial adminstration; she remained controversial throughout her reign until her death in 1906. In the play,this controversy is packaged as a defiance of the cultural norm that women should not dare rule during war. Because of her loyalty to her husband and her desire to lead,being somebody else’s wife after her husband does not appeal to her
She want to inherit the chiefdom of Senehum after her husband and she played the politics of succession well. Because it is war time,her husband prefer Ndapi his chief warrior. She would rather die than share a bed with Ndapi. She is greedy and insolent. Her insistence at having control of her space and fighting a culture set up that no consideration for woman as rulers,she has to be tough and insolent to push her agenda through
Yoko is portrayed as a beautiful, ambitions and courageous woman who joins an all male secret society (the feared poro society) and consequently loses her right to motherhood,though not to her sexuality. She knows not everyone is happy that she is the chief of Kpa-Mende, especially her brother Lamboi. In becoming a male female ,Yoko is much feared by her male contemporaries,envied by women in her constituency , and doubly pliable in the hands of British rulers. The Governor describes her as a shining example not only of African feminine pulchritude but of one who blends grace, magnanimity,bravery l, audacity , tranquillity and majesty
Being a visionary who willingly gives up the privilege of childbearing for the leading chieftaincy title in all of Kpa-Mende,she is willing to disprove the myth of female inferiority. Kargbo had do
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Symbolism is a literary device that uses symbols, be they words, people, marks, locations, or abstract ideas to represent something beyond the literal meaning. Invisible man, as a literary text,thrives on the use of symbols. Some other important symbols in the novel are the personal items that the Narrator burnt while he is inside the manhole which include the slip which contains the new name that he had been given by the Brotherhood. The burning of the items represents the Narrator’s movement from innocence into experience as he tries to redefine himself. By the end of the story, when he takes the decision to emerge out of the manhole, he has become more mature, someone that would be able to resist any form of manipulation.
Initially, when he gets stuck inside the manhole ,his inability to get a ladder to climb out, to the streets above, is indicative of the restricted access that many black Americans have to the many social , economic and political privileges that are available for the white members of the American society.
This idea of restriction is also highlighted through the two blobs of the Narrator that Brother Jack cuts off in the dreamlike trance. These two blobs are his two testicles and they represent the emasculation of blacks in the American society.
The manhole itself represents several years of marginalization and the restriction of black people to the fringes of American society, while the college that the Narrator attends and which has Dr Bledsoe as it’s principal, is a symbol of the black led American educational institutions which are used to impart the idea of white superiority of the blacks.
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Mary’s piggy bank,which the Narrator mistakenly destroyed and which is cast in the dorm of a black red lipped and wide mother Negro with a large grin is a symbol of the deprecatory representations of black people in American art . The fact that the Narrator is unable to di