Waec Physics Practical 2022 Answers (Alt. B) for 1st June

Waec Physics Practical 2022 Answers: The truth is, many secondary schools out there don’t allow their Waec and Neco candidates (exam candidates) to enter the examination hall with their mobile phones, here on Expobite, we are not promising to send you answers at midnight, definitely, that won’t be possible, rather we are promising you 3hrs before the Physics practical exam.

Waec Physics practical 2022 is scheduled for Wednesday 1st June 2022 and as a Waec 2022 candidate, you need to get the Physics practice questions and answers on time before the examination, so that you can be able to memorize them beforehand.

Oh yes, 3 hours before the examination is enough time to write all the answers down, or memorize them if you have a retentive memory.

Waec Physics Practical Questions and Answers 2022 Alternative B

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Waec Physics Practical 2022 Exam Date

The Waec Physics practical 2022 examination has been scheduled to hold on Wednesday 1st June 2022 from 09:30 am to 3:25 pm first and second set.

PaperStart TimeEnd Time
Physics 3 (Practical) (Alternative B) (1st Set)09:30 am12:15 pm
Physics 3 (Practical) (Alternative B) (2ndSet)12:40 pm3:25 pm
Waec Physics 3 Practical Timetable 2022

Countdown to Waec Physics Practical Exam 2022

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Waec Physics Practical Runz 2022 Expo

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Waec Physics Practical Specimen 2022

Below is the verified complete Waec 2022 Physics Practical Specimen for SS3 students:

Waec Physics Specimen 2022 (PHYSICS APPARATUS)

QUESTION 1
  • Metre rules;
  • Set of masses (20 g, 40 g, 60 g, 80 g, and 100 g);
  • Knife edge;
  • Five pieces of thread each of length about 50cm;
  • Weighing balance.
QUESTION 2
  • Laboratory thermometer;
  • 600 ml supply of water;
  • Retort stand and clamp;
  • One copper calorimeter, 150 ml capacity; unlagged;
  • Glass rod stirrer
  • Non-conducting pad for a calorimeter (e.g. cardboard);
  • Measuring cylinder (200 ml);
  • Stopwatch/clock;
  • Bunsen burner/source of heat.
QUESTION 3
  • Voltmeter (0 – 2 V);
  • Two dry cells (1.5 V each) connected in series (connecting leads should be provided for the battery);
  • Potentiometer;
  • Key/switch;
  • Jockey;
  • Metre bridge;
  • Connecting wires;
  • Ammeter (0 – 2 A).

CONDUCTING THE PRACTICAL PHYSICS TEST

  • 3. The following announcement should be made to the candidates at the beginning of the examination:

‘The Examiner does not want you to waste your time because you cannot proceed with an
experiment. Any candidate, therefore, who cannot get on with the experiment after spending 15 minutes on it, June come to me and ask for help.’

  • 4. The Physics Teacher should be allowed to give a hint to a candidate who is unable to proceed with the experiment.
  • 5. The following regulations must be strictly adhered to.
    • (a) No hint should be announced to the candidates as a whole.
    • (b) A candidate who is unable to proceed and requires assistance must come up to you and state his or her difficulty. The candidate should be told that the Examiner will be informed of any assistance given in this way.
    • (c) A note must be made, on the Report Form, of any assistance given to any candidate, with the name and index number of the candidate.

Click here to see the full Waec Physics specimen with diagrams.

Past Physics Questions and Answers Provided by Expobite

We have been in this since 2014 till date and all these years we have been providing exam candidates with the correct answers to all their exams, below, I will be sharing with you answers from past exam posted here on Expobite.net:

PHYSICS OBJ:
1-10: DCCAACDCCC
11-20: BDACABDCCB
21-30: ACBACCCBAD
31-40: BDDBAACCCA
41-50: CAAABBCBBC

loading…

=====================

PLEASE NOTE: asteric(*) MEANS multiplication(x).

(1)
Original length Lo = 3m
Extension e = 310 = 3*3 = 9m
F×e
F = ke where k = 982.3NM-²
F = 982.3*9 = 8,840.7N
The five that produce the extension F = 8.840.7N

====================

(2a)
Metal flat plate: It is a collector of heat that converts the radiant solar energy from the sun into heat energy by the process of greenhouse effect.

(2b)
Thermal Insulator: It prevents loss of accumulated heat in the solar collector and thereby improves its absorption efficiency.

(2c)
Tubes: They are use to capture almost all the sun’s energy. It is the most effecient solar collector
====================

(4)

V∝ Tx μy
LT-∝(MLT-²)x(MLT-¹)y
LT-¹∝ m*L*T-²x x m y L-y
LT-¹∝ m(x+y)L(x-y)T-²x
Comparing
X-y=1
X+y=0
-2x=1
From equation 3
X=½
Putting x = ½ into (eq) 2
y=-½
Equation is
V∝ T½ μ-½
V∝ √T/μ
V= k√T/μ
Where k is constant
====================

(6)
Angle at horizontal θ = 30°
Time of light , T = 25sec
Velocity of projection u = ?
But T=2using sinθ/g
25= 2u*sin30/10
25=0.5u/5
0.5u=125
U=125/0.5
=250ms-¹

=====================

(8a)
A torque or moment of a couple is the product of one of the forces and the perpendicular distance between the lines of action of the two forces.

(8aii)
(i)The two forces must be equal
(ii)The two forces must be opposite parallel
(iii)They must be equal distance between them

(8bi)
Free fall is defined as the motion of the body where gravity is the only force acting upon it.

(8bii)
Height of tower H = 40.0m
Velocity v = 10.0m/s, time t= ? , g=10.0m/s

Using the relation
S= ut + 1/2gt^2
H= ut + 1/2gt^2
40= 10t + 1/2*10t^2
4= t + t^2/2
= t^2 + 2t – 8=0 ( solving quadratically)
= (t+4)(t-2)=0
t+4=0 or t-2=0
t= -4 or t=2

Therefore time to fall on the ground t=2s

=======================

(1)
Tabulate.
S/N; 1|2|3|4|5|

M|g; 40.0|35.00|30.00|25.00|20.00|

θ°; 41.80|35.70|30.00|24.60|19.47|

ϕ=(90-θ°); 48.20|54.30|60.00|65.40|70.53|

Cosϕ; 0.6665|0.5835|0.5000|0.4163|0.3333|

(1xi)
Slope , S=Δm|g/ΔCosϕ
=(40-20)g/0.6665-0.3333
S= 20g/0.3332=60.024g

(1xii)
K=s/2 =60.024g/g= 30.012g

(1xiii)
-Precautions-
(i) I avoided error due to parallax when reading from the protector
(ii) I ensured that the force board is firmly and correctly clamped to the retort stand

(1)
Graph

(1b)
Coming check by 8;10am
====================================

(3)
Tabulate
S/N; 1|2|3|4|5|

R/Ω; 2.00|4.00|6.00|8.00|10.00|

L/cm; 50.00|66.70|75.00|80.00|83.30|

B/Ω^-¹; 0.500|0.250|0.167|0.125|0.100|

Δ/cm; 1.000|0.499|0.333|0.250|0.200|

(3xiii)
Slope ,S=ΔB/Ω^-¹/ΔΔ/cm =0.5-0.1/1.0-0.2=0.4/0.8=0.5
Slope =0.5Ω^-¹/cm

(3xiv)
K=S^-¹= 1/5=1/0.5Ω^-¹/cm =2Ωcm

(3xv)
-precautions-
(i) I avoided error due to parallax when reading from the potentiometer
(ii) I ensured that the wire are tightly connected.

(3)
Graph

(3bi)
(i) potentiometer give exact value of potential difference while voltmeter draws apart of the current
(ii) potentiometer can be used for measuring the internal resistance of a cell which cannot be done with voltmeter

=========================

*NECO 2020 PHYSICS OBJ*
1BCBDBEEDCD
11DACBEBABDE
21CDDDABBBAC
31CDAEBBCCDC
41BEEBDBAEEC
51DDCDADDEBD

======================

*NECO 2020 SECTION A*

*ANSWERS ONLY 6 FROM THIS SECTION NUMBER 1 IS COMPULSORY*
=====================================
PART I

(1a)
(i)printing machine
(ii)sterilizer

(1b)
Diagram (step up transformer)

SEE DIAGRAM

(1c)
1=1.26
t=48005
m=?
z=3.3*10^-⁴g
m=3.3*10^-⁴*1.26*4500
=1.996gram
≅2gram
=====================================

(2a)
A system is unstable when displaced, it experiences a net force in the same direction as the displacement from equilibrium. It tends to accelerate away from its equilibrium position if displaced even slightly while for neutral equilibrium, the system is independent of displacement from its original position

SEE DIAGRAM

(2b)
(ii)Low centre of gravity
(ii)Large surface area in contact
=====================================

(3a)
Velocity is defined as the rate of change in the displacement of a body it is a vector quantity with the S.I unit of ms-¹

(3b)
DIAGRAM
SEE DIAGRAM
=====================================

(4)
At equilibrium position Point B, the body possess maxim kinetic energy. As it moves out to end point A and C. It stops momentarily before changing its direction.

(Diagram)
SEE DIAGRAM
=====================================

(5a)
They are both derived quantities

(Diagram)

SEE DIAGRAM

(5b)
67-0/100-0 = x-25/100-25
67/100 = x-25/75
61*3 = 4(x-25)
201 = 4x-100
4x = 201+100
4x = 301
x = 301/4 = 75.25 ohms
=====================================

(6a)
(i)violin
(ii)guitar

(6b)
The depth of field of a lens camera is less than that of a pinhole camera
=====================================

(7a)
– An amplifier
– A speaker

(7b)
u = 16cm
m = 4=v/u
:. v =4u
v = 4×16 = 64cm
Recall, 1/f = 1/u + 1/v
1/f = 1/16 + 1/64
1/f = 4+1/64
1/f = 5/64
f = 64/5 = 12.8cm
=====================================

(8a)
The zinc atoms on the surface of the anode oxidizes I;e they give up both their valence electrons to become positively

(8b)
Diagram
=====================================

(9a)
The power factor of a circuit is unity when the apparent power equals or some as the real power

(9b)
V=Vr+Vc
15=12+Vc
Vc=15-12
Vc=3v
=====================================

(10a)
(i)Viscosity
(ii)weight
(iii)upthrust

(10bi)
(i)Viscosity; the force in between the layers of flurds this force would tend to reduce the velocity at which the stone moves down till it reach terminal velocity

(ii)weight; is the actual force acting of the stone in the liquid.

(iii)upthrust; is the upward force felt by reply objects in flurd, due to the area displace
=====================================

(11i)
A=9 (molecular mass)
B=6 (atomic mass)
C=0

(11ii)
Z=Energy

(11iii)
Nuclear fusion
=====================================

Physics-ExpoBite.Com!

1BCEDBEDBBD
11DEDCAEDCEB
21DDBBCBDBDC
31BEDBBCAEDD
41EDACEECCED
51DCECECDBCB
====================
====================

====================================
Physics-THEORY
(1a)
(i) A multimeter
(ii) Reads if there is short circuit in the electric circuit

(1b)
(i)A simple microscope uses one lens while a compound microscope uses two lens
(ii)A compound microscope produces a higher magnification than that of simple microscope

(1c)
Using M= ZIt
I = M/Zt
I = 450/3.30*10-⁴ *25*60
I = 909A
====================
====================

(3a)
Range (R) is defined as the horizontal distance from the point of projection to the point where the projectile hits the projection plane again

(3b)
Time of flight: T= 2usinθ/g
sinθ = Tg/2u = 1.5*10/2*12

sinθ = 15/24 = 0.625
θ = sin-¹(0.625)
θ = 38.7°
====================
====================

(4a)
(i)Flying bullet
(ii)A moving car

(4b)
mgh = mc∆θ
∆θ = gh/c = 10*108/4200
= 0.257°C or 0.257K
====================
====================

(6a)
A stationary wave is produced by a superposition of two waves of the frequency and amplitude which are exactly out of phase with each other

(6b)
Wavelength = 4/2.5 = 1.6m
====================
====================

(5a)
Vaporization is the conversion of a substance from the liquid or solid phase into the gaseous (vapour) phase.

(5b)
(i) Deform
(ii) No change
====================
====================

(8a)
Lost Volt refers to the amount of energy lost (in a battery, generally) to energy resistance of components. It is generally fairly negligible, but to calculate: V=IR
where I is the current and R is resistance.

(8b)
(i) Secondary cell last long and can be used over again and again.

(ii) A secondary cell is rechargeable meaning that the chemical reactions taking place in the cell are reversible and can be carried out in the opposite direction to charge the cell again.
====================
====================

Expobite Section B.
====================
====================

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

NO 1

NO 1X GRAPH

(1bi)
The period of an oscillatory motion is the time taken for a body to complete one oscillation.

(1bii)
-TABULATE-
(i)Mass is a scalar quantity WHILE weight is a vector quantity.
(ii)The SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg) WHILE the SI unit of weight is Newton (N).
°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°′
(3av)
Tabulate

S/N ||1 || 2 || 3 || 4 || 5

d(cm) || 80.00|| 70.00 || 50.00 || 40.00 || 30.00

I(A) || 0.30||0.35 || 0.40|| 0.45||0.50 ||

(I)^-¹ ||3.333 ||2.857 ||2.500 || 2.222||2.000 ||

(3avii)
from the graph, Slope s, = ∆d/∆I^-¹
= 71 – 20 ÷ 3 – 1.75
= 51/1.25
= 40.8cmA
Or 0.408Am

(3aviii)
(i) I ensured tight connections
(ii) I avoided error due to parallax while reading the ammeter

(3bi)
(i) Straight at the magnetic field
(ii) The number of turns of it’s coils

(3bii)
Given:
Diameter d, = 0.6cm = 6×10^-³m
Resistivity, e = 1.0×10^-6 Ωm
Resistance R = 4Ω

Using R = eL/A
L=RA/e
= Rπd²/4e
= 4 × 22/7 × 36 × 10^-6 ÷ 4 × 1 × 10^-⁶
= 22/7 × 36
= 113.14m
:. L = 113.14metres


(3a)

WAEC PHYSICS PRACTICAL ANSWERS 2022

(NO1)

Graph

(1b and the rest)

(1x)
(Tabulate)
S/N: 1|| 2|| 3|| 4|| 5||

M(g): 20.00|| 40.00|| 60.00|| 80.00|| 100.00||

Z(cm): 40.00|| 35.00|| 30.00|| 25.00|| 20.00||

y(cm): 35.00|| 30.00|| 25.00|| 20.00|| 15.00||

x(cm): 10.00|| 15.00|| 20.00|| 25.00|| 30.00||

V: 0.2857|| 0.5000|| 0.8000|| 1.2500|| 1.2500|| 2.0000||


(1xiv)
(i) I avoided parallax error when taking readings from the meter rule
(ii) I avoided drought by switching off the electric fans

(1bi)
An object is said to be in a stable equilibrium a slight displacement, the object tends to return back to its original position.
°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°

(3)

-Precautions-
(i)I will avoid Parallax error was avoided on ammeter
(ii)I will ensure Key opened when reading was not being taken
(iii)I will avoid sliding of jockey on the potentiometer wire.
Graph

(3b and the Rest)

HISTORY OBJ

01-10: AACCCCCBDA
11-20: BBAAAAAADD
21-30: DDDDDCACBB

More coming

HISTORY ESSAY

SECTION A

(2)
(i) Subsistence and Commercial Activities:
Agriculture is the main economic activity. Grain is the staple diet, including Guinea corn, millet, maize, and rice. The Hausa also grow and eat root crops and a variety of vegetables. Cotton and peanuts are processed and used locally, but part of the harvest is exported. The Hausa practice intercropping and double-cropping; their main implement is the hoe.

(ii) Industrial Arts:
There are full-time specialists only where there is an assured market for craft products. Men’s crafts include tanning, leatherworking, saddling, weaving, dying, woodworking, and smithing. Iron has been mined, smelted, and worked as far back as there are Hausa traditions.

(iii) Trade:
Trade is complicated and varied. Some traders deal in a particular market, as distinguished from those who trade in many markets over a long distance. This dual trade strategy, augmented by the contributions of the Cattle Fulani, enabled the Hausa to meet all of their requirements, even during the nineteenth century.

(iv) Division of Labor:
Hausa society traditionally observes several divisions of labor: in public administration, it is primarily men who may be appointed, although some women hold appointed positions in the palace. Class determines what sort of work one might do, and gender determines work roles. When women engage in income-producing activities, they may keep what they earn

(v) Land Tenure:
The rural householder farms with his sons’ help; from the old farm, he allocates to them small plots, which he enlarges as they mature. New family fields are cleared from the bush.


(3)
(i)Each Igbo village was seen as a political unit inhabited by related families who were bounded by common beliefs and origin. Each family head in the village held the ‘Ofo‘ title and altogether formed the council of elders.

(iii)Among the council of elders, one was recognized as the most senior to others. He was the ‘Okpara‘. He could call for and adjourn a meeting, and could also give judgements as well.

(iii)the age-grade. The age-grade consisted of youngsters that belong to the same age-group. The senior age-group maintained peace and order in the village and also provided security to ward off external attacks, while the junior age-group concentrated on the sanitation of the community and other necessary duties.

(iv)the ‘Ozo‘ title holders. This expensive title was conferred on wealthy and influential men in the community who after getting the title become recognized and could then preside over meetings with the village elders.


(v)they were believed to be the mouthpiece of the gods e.g. Aro’s long juju. Even the council of elders consulted the priests on matters that were beyond their powers i.e. matters that needed spiritual intervention.


Number 4

i. The Nature of Islam:

The nature of Islam as a religion accepting polygamy to some extent, its tolerance of traditional African religions, its simplicity of doctrine and mode of worship helped propagators to make converts in Africa. These factors also made Islam easily adaptable to the African communities with which it came in contact. Again, the Islamisation of Africa was paralleled by the Africanisation of Islam. The making and sale of charms and amulets, which were believed to offer protection against evil forces and generally ensure success in life, were important in winning over converts.

ii. Trade:

Another major reason that led to the rapid spread of Islam in West Africa was the trans-Saharan trade network. From the seventh century onwards, Muslim traders from the Maghreb and the Sahara started settling first in some of the market centres in the Sahel and then in the Savanna areas. Al-Bakri, a renowned Arabic Scholar and merchant wrote in 1067, that the capital of ancient Ghana was already divided into two parts; about six miles apart, the Muslim traders’ part which had as many as twelve mosques and the King’s part had one mosque for the use of the king’s Muslim visitors. It was these resident Muslim traders who converted the rulers and the principal local town’s people to Islam. Also, according to Kano Chronicles, during the reign of Yaji, the King of Kano from 1349 to 1385, the Wangarawa came from Melle bringing the Mohammedan religion. These examples grew the process of Islamisation or conversion to Islam, as it gathered momentum.

iii. Activities of Muslim Clerics:

Islam also spread into West Africa through the activities of Muslim clerics, marabouts and scholars or mallams. These clerics or learned men founded their own religious centres which attracted students from all parts of the Western Sudan and who on the completion of their studies and training went back to their own homes to win converts. Many of them went on lecture or missionary tours to convert people, while others became advisers to Sudanese Kings on how to become effective rulers. Some clerics devoted a great deal of their time to writing books and instructions on all aspects of Islam for the education and conversion of people or the purification and strengthening of Islam. Some examples of clerics follow:

Ibu Khadija al-Kumi, a Muslim missionary and Abu Ishaq al-Sahili, a poet, scholar and architect from Granada were both invited by Mansa Musa to accompany him on his return from his celebrated pilgrimage in 1324/5. Both of them settled in Mali where they taught Islam. Al-Sahili also designed the great mosque of Timbuktu as well as a magnificent palace for Mansa Musa in the capital of Mali.

Again, the great Mande scholar, Abd Rahman Zaite (now identified as Abd al-Rahman Jakhite) settled in Kano on the invitation of Rumfa, the King of Kano. He built a mosque and introduced the practice of Koran recital and other devotional exercises.

Another brilliant Berber scholar called Abd al-Rahman al-Maghili (1477-78) established his Zawiyaie Islamic school in Tuat in the Sahara, and from there went on a missionary tour of the Western Sudan which lasted from 1492 to 1503. During this tour, he visited Air, Takedda, Kano, Katsina and Gao and preached to both rulers and commoners.

iv. Activities of Rulers:

Islam gained ground in West Africa through the activities of the individual rulers. The rulers of the Western Sudan encouraged the trans-Saharan trade and extended hospitality to both traders and visiting clerics, but perhaps one of the most important ways in which they encouraged acceptance of Islam was through their own conversion. With a Muslim King or ruler it rapidly became a matter of prestige among the aristocracy also to convert to Islam in many kingdoms. Many rulers made considerable efforts to encourage Muslim institutions such as Islamic tax and legal systems or the provision of facilities such as mosques, through the appointment of Muslim officials such as judges and butchers who observe the Islamic code and to lead prayers, celebrating Muslim festival and ordering every town under their control to observe the ritual prayers. The pilgrimages that many of the rulers undertook – such as Mansa Musa and Askia Mohammed — had a considerable spiritual effect increasing their determination both to strengthen and purify Islam and to spread it even further.

v. Holy War:

What is more, another way in which Islam was introduced and spread in West Africa in general and the Western Sudan in particular was the militant jihad, or the waging of holy war against infidels or lukewarm Muslims. This method allowed the third and final stage of the process of Islamisation to reach its climax with the nineteenth-century jihad in the Western Sudan, between Mali and Senegambia and Hausaland in northern Nigeria.

The first jihad in the Western Sudan which has accounts was that waged by the head of the Sudanese confederation. It was Tarsina against the Sudanese people in 1023, soon after his return from the pilgrimage to Mecca. He was killed during these clashes. The second is that of the King of Takrur, War-Ajabbi, before his death in 1040. The third and the best known of these early jihads was the one declared by the Almoravid movement of ancient Ghana between 1048 and 1054 by the scholar, Abdallah Ibn Yasin. Between 1056 and 1070s, the Almoravid conquered the whole area between ancient Ghana and Sijilmasa. By 1087 the Almoravid Empire stretched from the Senegal in the south across the Mediterranean to Spain in the north.

vi. Inter-marriage:

Islam also spread on to West Africa through inter-marriages. The Muslim merchants from North Africa came down settled and married the African women who became Muslims including their children.


(6a)
i. The constitutions enacted during this period were the Clifford Constitution in 1922.

ii. The Richards Constitution in 1946.

iii. The Macpherson Constitution in 1951.

iv. The Lyttleton Constitution in 1954.

v. In 1946 a new constitution was approved by Westminster and promulgated in Nigeria.

(6b)

i. In the executive council, The ministers were not given portfolios. They acted as mere officers of government. They had no power to issue orders to their directors. However, they were collectively responsible for all policy decisions.

ii. There were also criticism, on the creation of unequal status and adoption of two houses of legislature (bicameral in the Northern and Western regions only).

iii. The continued appointment of special members in the House of Representatives, House of assembly and the Electoral college system of election, were some of the serious criticisms.

iv. Even though the 1951 constitution was the result of series of consultations with the various levels of government and educated elites, it received some criticisms from the Nigerian nationalists who saw it as a constitution built on compromise.

v. It could be stated that the 1951 constitution enjoyed wide publicity. Generally the constitution could be seen as constitution that recognized the demands of the people.


(8)
(i) Ethnically based Federal Regions, with uneven size and power:
The first structural weakness which set the First Republic in Nigeria for political crisis was its ethnically- based federal regions and the asymmetry in size and power between them. Upon independence, Nigeria was composed of three federating regions: Northern, Eastern and Western regions. (Later in 1963 a new region, the Mid-West, was carved out of the West following a crisis in that region). Each of the regions was dominated by one of the country’s three largest ethnic groups: Hausa-Fulani in the North, Yoruba in the West and Igbo in the East. This arrangement presided over by the dominant ethnic groups placed minorities at a considerable disadvantage in the competition for jobs and resources at the regional level.

(ii) Ethno-Regional Political Parties:
The second structural weakness which afflicted the First Republic was the emotive association between political party and ethno- regional identity. This meant politics largely “revolved around ethnic-based regional…parties”. Reflecting the tripodal ethnic balance, three parties bestrode the political scene like titans and thus shaped the destiny of the First Republic: Northern People’s Congress (NPC), the Action Group (AG), and the National Council of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC). All three parties originally emerged out of ethno-cultural associations: NPC from Jam’iyar Mutanen Arewa (Association of Peoples of the North) AG from Egbe omo Oduduwa (Society for the Descendants of Oduduwa.

(iii) The political alignment which formed after the 1959 election:
It can be argued that the political constellation which emerged after the 1959 election was the most potent of the young republic’s structural weaknesses. It had huge impacts on the stability of the soon to be an independent nation. The North-South governing coalition between the NPC and the NCNC, variously described as “unnatural”, a coalition of “strange bedfellows”, only accentuated the republic’s structural imbalances. On immediate observations, it was certainly a partnership of unequal – with the NPC being by far the more powerful of the two governing parties. This meant the NCNC was always acutely sensitive to the tenuousness of its share of power.

(iv) The fear of ethnic domination:
The last and deepest of the structural weaknesses was the fear of ethnic domination which pervaded the politics of the First Republic. The Yorubas and Igbos in the two southern regions feared that the Hausa-Fulanis would use the North’s demographic preponderance to perpetuate northern hegemony and monopolise federal resources for their region; Hausa-Fulanis, in turn, feared that in an open contest, the Yorubas and Igbos, being the more educated, would dominate the political and economic structures of the federation.

(v) The disintegration of the AG, 1962-63:
The collapse of the AG’s political power between 1962 and 1963 produced far-reaching effects. The crisis that engulfed the party stemmed from its “staggering defeat” in 1959. It had been ‘relegated’ to the opposition. The NCNC had made impressive inroads into its regional heartland, securing for itself 21 seats in the AG’s political turf by exploiting minority discontent within the Western Region.

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