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Waec Literature in English Answers 2021
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(You Are To Answer Only Two(2) Only.
Yoko: She was a leader of the Mende people in Sierra Leone. Combining advantageous lineage, shrewd marriage choices and the power afforded her from the secret Sande Society, Yoko became a leader of considerable influence. She expanded the Mende. Kingdom and at the time of her death, she was the ruler of the vast Kpa Mende Confederacy. She changed her name to Yoko at her Sande initiation ceremony, during which time she became known for her graceful dancing. Yoko’s first marriage, which was unsuccessful, was to a man named gongioma leaving Gongoima, Yoko’s second husband was Gbenjei, Chief ofT mama Yoko reinajned childless, Gbenjei made her his great wife with prominent attention, giving her power within her household. Following Gbenjei’s death, Yoko married Gbanya Lango. In 1875, Gbanya was detained by Colonial Officials in Taiamawaro. Yoko went directly to Governor Roweto appeal for her husband’s release. Rowe was impressed with Yoko’s appeal and Gbanya was flogged, and then released. following this incident, Gbanya made Yoko his great wife and began sending her on diplomatic missions, With the Sande, Yoko was able to wield significant power not only amongst women but also over Mende society as a whole. As a leader in this women’s secret society, she made political alliances and took younger initiates as “wards” later marrying them into other aristocratic lineages in an imitation of the trajectory of her own rise to power, In1878, following her third husband’s death, Yoko became the chief of Senehun. By 1884, she was officially recogniscd as “Queen of Senehun”. This recognition came not only from her own people, but also from the British. She died in 1906, rumoured to have committed suicide. Lamboi her brother succeeded her because she had no descendants of her own.
Jimmy Porter feels the sense of alienated from the Establishment, the upper-crust of British society, which has shut him out of the most lucrative jobs because of his class. He graduated from a “white-tile” university, one of the newer and least prestigious universities in Great Britain, so his education, as good as it ended up being, doesn’t mean much to the British Establishment. He also feels alienated from his wife, Alison, whose father is a colonel and whose brother is now a member of Parliament. He regularly berates Alison, characterizing himself as the only thinking person in the household. He has even given her a nickname: Lady Pusillanimous. This nickname emphasizes both Jimmy’s intelligence (via his vocabulary) and Alison’s timid nature. It also suggests that at least part of Jimmy’s alienation stems from his behavior, not his socioeconomic status, and that he might have an easier time connecting with people if he treated them with respect. In other words Jimmy Porter spoke for a large segment of the British population in 1956 when he ranted about his alienation from a society in which he was denied any meaningful role. He wants to force her to feel and to have vital life. He calls her “Lady Pusillanimous” because he sees her as too cowardly to commit to anything Jimmy is anxious to give a great deal and is deeply angry because no one seems interested enough to take from him, including his wife. He says, “My heart is so full, I feel ill and she wants peace!”
“Rage” is personified throughout the poem. It is possible that the poet does this deliberately to underline this fact:
Rage is the “chief” architect of man’s troubles on this earth. And, by extension, negative emotions constitute a powerful force in our lives.
This is why they must be avoided at all cost before they destroy us.
Rage, anger or hatred only serve to deprive the individual of the things he most desires. Rage is like a raider. It will steal the laughter, the, peace and calmness, sweetness and, indeed, all light from you if you allow it a place in your heart and mind
In other words, rage is the thief or “raider” always lurking around the corner to rob us of our dreams for a life of contentment.
Like corrosive acid, rage is toxic. It eats away the treasures of happiness that all humans work so hard to achieve.
In effect, all human suffering can be attributed to man’s inability to rid himself of dark emotions like anger, jealousy and hatred and to replace them with love.
Rage brings nothing other than trouble.
A poem tone is expressed through the attitude of emotional state of the speakers, ‘Do not go gentle into that good night’ has an unusual tone of defiant towards death rather than accepting or resigned. This explains the strong emotions that run through the poem. The poetic persona urges the listeners to rage, rage against the dying of the light. Rage is repeated for emphasis. It is also used to add taste of urgency to his request. He is desperately trying to appeal or provoke his listeners into finding the strength and audacity that he needs to stand up to death. He also affirms that old age should rave and burn only at the close of the day. The repetition rate of rage in the poem suggests desperation in the tone of the poet; in additional are anger and defiance. In the poem, the poetic persona portrays his attitude of defying death and encourages his listeners to do same. The poetic persona is angry at the despondence death brings and he believes strongly that the only way to counter the feeling of death is to defy it.
(You Are To Answer Only Two(2) Only.
Adah’s story begins when she is about eight years old, when she develops a dream to go to the United Kingdom. (Though she does not know her exact age, she does know that she “fe[els] eight” and was born during World War II.) As a Nigerian girl, however, she must overcome limitations placed upon her gender. She fights to be sent to school, as education is seen as unnecessary for girls. Adah takes it upon herself to go to school one day; thereafter, she is allowed to attend school with her younger brother, Boy, at an expensive private institution. In other words She is permitted to continue to pursue an education so that her family can charge a higher “bride-price.” Adah wins a scholarship for high school that includes room and board, so she moves out of her uncle’s house. Soon, though she wishes to continue studying. She decides she will have to marry. Her mother and others in the community have been encouraging Adah to consider suitors for some time already, but Adah did not want to marry a much older man. She ultimately marries Francis Obi, a young man who is studying accounting and cannot afford her bride-price. Adah lives with Francis and his parents, with whom she gets along well. She starts a good job at the American Consulate but is dismayed to discover that she will be the only one working to support the family. She quickly becomes pregnant with her first two children: a daughter, Titi, and a son, Vicky. While Adah is pregnant for the second time, a plan is conceived for Francis to study in England; Adah has shared her dream with Francis and he finally agrees that they can pursue it.
As her name suggests, Mary Rambo is both Mary, the saintly mother of Jesus, and Aunt Jemima, the female version of Sambo. Mary is a strong black woman who has learned to survive the violence and corruption of the city by relying on her inner resources. A Southern woman who now lives in the North, Mary provides the narrator’s only source of love and comfort. After his harrowing experience at the Liberty Paint Factory Hospital, the narrator is grateful for Mary’s kindness and generosity. Seeing him simply as a fellow human being who needs help, Mary takes him into her home, cooks for him, and nurses him back to health. When he can’t pay his rent, she tells him not to worry. Seeing how depressed he is about his situation, Mary encourages him and reassures him that he will make something of himself and be “a credit to his race.” She does everything she can to demonstrate her faith in him and, in effect, adopts him as her surrogate son. During this time, the narrator sees Mary as the saintly mother figure, referring to her as his anchor and guide, and appreciating her support and generosity. But after he meets Brother Jack and begins to work for the Brotherhood, he sees Mary through different eyes. She becomes a source of shame and embarrassment for him, prompting him to try to shatter her image, as symbolized by his futile attempt to discard the cast-iron bank. The bank, like Mary, represents a part of his heritage he wants to forget. Although he initially appreciates her cooking, he now complains of his steady diet of cabbage. At first he sees her home as a sanctuary and source of solace and comfort, but later he notices the noise, poverty, and filth surrounding her, as indicated by the banging on the pipes, the smell of cabbage, and the invasion of roaches. He finally leaves Mary without even saying goodbye, confident that she will survive, having undoubtedly gone through similar experiences with other black men. Mary is a survivor who represents the courage and dignity of the black woman.
2021/2022 Waec Literature in English Answers for Essay Objectives and Oral Questions And Available Now
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This is a story about an old man who lived in a village. He had two sons and one daughter. They were all well settled in their city life. His children would send him money every month so that he did not have any crisis. They also used to send letters to know about his well being.
Once in a year his sons and daughter would come to pay a visit to him but for the rest of the year his only source of communication was the letters. sometimes he would go to the post master of the village to read the letters for him because he did not know to read and write. The postmaster always used to help the old man reading and writing the letters for him.
But unfortunately that post master died and a young postmaster got appointed. That young postmaster was a rude person who did not want to help the man. Slowly his way of communication with his children got cut off. He use to remain very upset.
One day the head master of the village school came to him and asked about his disappointment. The old man told him that because of his being illiterate he is facing trouble to get in touch with his children. He described how he never went to school because of his commitments towards his family. After listening to the his problem, the head master gave him a solution that instead of asking help from others he should once again start going to school and read and write.
The old man said everybody would laugh at him at this age studying. The headmaster told is better late than never. So following his advice the man joined the night school and started reading and writing. within few months he started writing letters to his children and getting their answers too. By then he did not have to go to anyone to read the letter. That day he was clear on the proverb that better late than never.
WAEC Literature Answers 2021 [Obj-Prose-Drama-Poetry]
Just keep Refreshing steady
Workdone = 1/2Fe
= 1/2 × 40 × 1/100
= 1/5 = 0.2J
(i)Navigation satellites e.g global position system – GPS
(ii) Communication satellites eg ANIK
V = 2πR/T
For every second,
Speed, V = 2πR
V = 2 × 22/7 × 6300
V = 39,600km/s
V=u cosθ -gt
Wave particles duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particles or quantum entitle may be described as either a particle or wave.
h=4.2*10^-¹¹ * 1.6*10^-²³
Fiber optics work on the principle of total internal reflection.
Core: This is the light transmission area of the fiber, either glass or plastic.
cladding is made of a material with a slightly lower index of refraction than the core
Hooke’s law states that the extension e produced by an elastic material is directly proportional to the applied force provided the elastic unit is not exceeded.
(i) Given extension, e = I2 – I1 = 0.75 – 0.20 = 0.55m
Force applied, Fe = (1.95 – 0.30) × 10
= 1.65 × 10 = 16.5N
Force constant , K = F/R = 16.5/0.55 = 30N/m
(ii) Using F = K (I1 – Io)
m1g = K ( I1 – Io)
= 0.30 × 10 = 30(0.20 – Io)
= 0.10 = 0.20 – Io
Io = 0.20 – 0.10
Io = 0.10m
Length of spring when it was unloaded = 0.10m
Diffusion is the net movement of particles from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
(ii) Size of particles
Rate of diffusion is inversely proportional to the square root of density under given conditions of temperature and pressure. ie R ∝ 1/√d
T = circumference of the orbit/orbit velocity
T = 2πR/v
But V = √GM/R
T = 2π√R³/GM
Root measurement value of an alternating current is the value of A.C current that has the same heating affect as a D.C current
Impedance is the affective resistance of an electric circuit arising from the combined affects of ohmic resistance and reactance .( ie resistors, indicators and capacitors)
Current in circuit , I = 60/120 = 0.5A
Voltage across device , Vr = 120V
Voltage across capacitor , Vc = √V² – Vr
Vc = √240² – 120²
Vc = 207.846V
Ic = I = 0.5
Xc = Vc/Ic = 207.846/0.5 = 415.7Ω
Capacitance, C = Xc/2πf = 415.7/2*3.142*50 = 1.323F
The capacitance of a capacitor is the ratio of the amount of charge on its plates to the potential difference between them. ie C = ∑/V
(i) Charge in both capacitors are the same
∑1 = Q2
ie C1V1 = C2V2 ………(1)
Total capacitance ,C = C1C2/C1+C2
C = C2/1+C2/C1 = C2/1+V/V2
C = C2V2/V1+V2 = C2V2/2
(ii)Voltage across, V1 = (C2/C1+C2) × V
V1 = (C1/C1+C2) × V
But C1/C2 = d2/d1 = 5/2
V1 = (1/(5/2+1)) × 2 = 2/7 ×2 = 4/7Volts
Voltage across, C2 : V2 = 2-4/7 = 10/7volts
A radioactive nucleus is said to be relatively stable if it does not further disintegrate or form any other atomic nucleus
Reason; The more the atomic mass of a nucleus, the more it’s radioactive tendency an the lesser it’s stability
Ionization potential is the amount of energy eV, which helps to remove an electron completely from an atom. It is represented with V.
E = eV
IeV = 1.6×10-¹⁹
V = hv/λ where h is the planks constant
h = 6.626 ×10-³⁴ , c = 3×10⁸m , λ = 1.02 × 10-⁷m
E = (1.6×10-¹⁹) × (6.626 ×10-³⁴) × (3×10⁸)/1.02 × 10-⁷
E = 31.805 × 10-⁴⁵/1.02 × 10-⁷
E = 31.2 × 10-³⁸ volts
WAEC literature-in-English Questions and Answers 2021/2022
*ANSWER (4)FOUR QUESTIONS ONLY.AT LEAST ONE FROM EACH PART*
National unity is the desire of the citizens of a country to promote peace and stability (common interest) in them country.
(i)N.Y.S.C. (National Youth Service Corp)
Program Me: This program me is established by the federal government in 1973 to bring about unity among
graduates from different institutions, educated fellows to come together from different state to serve their nation for a period of one year.
(ii)Transport and communication: Road
bridges and airways are built and constructed by government at various levels to link up rural with urban areas and to ease movement of the people from one place to another, thereby promoting national integration.
(iii)National languages: Despite about the 350 different ethnic groups in Nigeria with different dialects, efforts are being made to promote a national or an official language. For instance English language has been recognized as the official or national language.
(iv)Employment and Labor mobility:The
federal government employs and transfer workers from different cultural groups to work elsewhere in the country.
Drug trafficking can be defined as the illicit global trade that deals with the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of substances which are subject to drug prohibition laws. Illicit drugs are usually smuggled across the nation’s land, air and sea ports
(i)Physical/health consequence: It damages the important body organs such as brain ,liver,pancreas. It cause nose bleeding, hypertension, chronic cough, avoidance accident, premature death and heart attack.
(ii)psychological consequence: Drug abuse leads to sleeplessness, anxiety ,craving for drug of choice,loss of memory,hearing or seeing image when this is not real ,depression ,personality disintegration ,emotional instability.
(iii)social consequence: Increase in criminal acts such as stealing, armed robbery,murder,rape,suicide ,cultism,prostitution ,juveniles delinquency destitution. It can render the user poor and bring shame on the family of the drug abuser.
(iv)Economic consequence: The confiscation is of economic disadvantage to the dealer. Drug abuse cab lead to reduction in the number of workforce/labour force. It can also lead to death of a supposedly bread winner of a family.
(i)Search for responsibility: Some students join cult groups inorder to perform certain services for the members. For example ,some of them want to fight perceived injustice on their campuses against their members.
(ii)Search for satisfaction of one’s aspirations and need: For example ,a student may belong yo a cult group whose part of their objective is to ensure high success of its members in academic examinations
(iii)Search for social identity: There are some students who join cult groups in attempt to be popular. They want to be regarded as powerful people. for them ,it is a way of achieving prestige and greatness.
(i)A definite legislation that will pass a death sentence to anybody found guilty of cult activities on the campuses.
(ii)Moral education should be made compulsory in the primary and secondary schools in the country
(iii)Cultism and its consequences should be treated in the General studies courses in all tertiary institutions in the country.
Citizenship can be defined as the legal right that a person has to belong to a particular country. It is the act of becoming a legitimate member of a country and accepting the responsibility and benefits that are attached to it.
(i)Citizenship by birth
(ii)Citizenship by naturalization
(iii)Citizenship by marriage or registration
(i)Citizenship by birth: This is a way of becoming a citizen of a country because our parent are from that country. A person is a citizen by birth if either of his parents,mother or father is a citizen of a country
(ii)Citizenship by naturalization: Somebody can become a citizen of a country where he lives through naturalization. This is possible if he can satisfy the constitutional requirements for naturalization.
(iii)Citizenship by Marriage or registration: If a woman is married to a person of another nationality ,she can acquire the Citizenship of the husband’s country through registration. For example, a Nigeria woman married to a British ,or a British woman married to a Nigeria.
(iv)Dual citizenship: Itnis a legitimately possible for a person to hold citizenship of two countries . For example a child born to Nigeria parents living in America becomes a US citizen. The baby is also a Nigerian because the parents are Nigerians.
Civil society is a non-governmental organization formed for the purposes of promoting and protecting the interest of generality of the people as well as mobilizing them for participation in the governance and development of the society.
(i)Monitor government activities, political processes and force the authorities to act reasonably and accordingly to the constitution.
(ii)Pursue positive changes in social, economic, political and cultural aspects of people’s lives.
(iii)Be an intermediary between the public and the state, bring the interests of people to the authorities and protect democratic values.
(iv)Communicate with the people and disseminate information about transformations in the state.
WAEC Literature in English Questions
Answer 4 Questions in all.
Two(2) from each section. 2 from section
A and 2 from Section B.
Universal declaration of human rights
(i) Conduct investigation into cases of human rights violation: States have the obligation to conduct exhaustive and impartial investigation into allegations of human rights violation in order to identify and bring to justice the perpetrators. The declaration in human rights defenders emphasises by outlining the obligation to conduct a “prompt and impartial investigation” or inquiry’s whenever there’s “reasonable ground” to believe that a violation has occurred
(ii) Take all necessary measures to protect human rights defenders against violation, discrimination and retaliation: In carrying out their works, human rights defenders need to be assured of effective protection against violence, retaliation or discrimination. The increasing need for such protection has been illustrated by numerous attacks on human rights defenders in recent years.
(iii) Promote human rights through education and training: Human rights training and education are crucial for promoting a better understanding of human rights within a society. Under various human rights treaties states have a duty to adopt measures to promote human rights through teaching, education and training.
Representative democracy: This is the form of government where people run the government or exercise political power through their elected representatives.
(i) Recruitment of political leaders: One of the key functions of political parties is the recruitment of political leaders.
(ii) Education of the electorates: Political parties in Nigeria educate the electorates through their campaigns and rallies.
(iii) Promotion of interest in politics: People become interested in politics through the activities of political parties.
(iv) Ensuring political stability: Political parties help to ensure political stability by presenting candidates of integrity and experience in governance.
(i) Right to life
(ii) Right to personal liberty
(iii) Right to fair hearing
(i)contesting election:a citizen has the right to contest for any political offices any time he wishes to do so
(ii)voting in election: citizens have the right to cast their votes for the candidate of their choice without interference from any body
(iii)Belonging to a political party: it’s the political right of a citizen to belong to any political parties of his choices.
(iv)Holding of public offices: this allow individual to contribute immensely in the areas of decision making.
The rule of law: the rule of law is defined as the supremacy of the law over every citizen in a political system. It means that every citizen must act in accordance with the law
(i) Promotes the freedom of the judiciary: One of the advantages of rules of law is that it promotes the freedom of the judiciary
(ii) Enhance the freedom of the individuals : Where rules of law operates, government are expected to allow the expression of divergent views in the society.
(iii) Promotes qualitative life: Where rules of law operates to the letter, the quality of life of the citizen is greatly enhanced
(iv) Preserves the constitution: Another advantages of the operation of rules of law is that it helps to preserve the constitution of the land.
Popular participation: this can be defined as the process where by individuals get themselves involves in the political activities and in the decision making of their country.
(i) good governance: when the govt in power provide good governance to the citizens , it will enable the citizens to be interested in participating in their political system
(ii) Free and fair election: if there is free and fair election that devoid of harassment and intimidation of voters , it will encourage the citizens to be interest in the political system of their country
(iii) Rule of law: supremacy of the constitution that will guarantee level playing ground for both the voters and candidates may encourage citizens to take in their political system
(iv)Failure of the past govt: people may want to participate in govt because past govt failed the people in the areas of provision of amenities, so citizens may be encouraged to come out and vote bad govt out of office.
(i) Speed limit
(ii) No overtaking
(iii) Packing hall
(i) Over speeding: At high speed the vehicle needs greater distance to stop i.e. braking distance. The ability to judge the forthcoming events also gets reduced while driving at faster speed which causes error in judgment and finally a crash.
(ii) Bad roads: The failure of successive government in Nigeria to fix the death traps called roads in Nigeria has no doubt caused so much pain to temporary and frequent roads user’s
(iii) Poor vehicle maintenance: Most of the vehicles are in bad shape and as a result of the bad maintenance cause so many accident in Nigeria.
(iv) Drunken driving: Consumption of alcohol decreases reaction time of a human body. Limbs take more to react to the instructions of brain. It hampers vision due to dizziness. It also dampens fear and incite humans to take risks. All these factors while driving causes accidents.
(v) Distraction to Driver:
Though distraction while driving could be minor but it can cause major accidents. Distractions could be outside or inside the vehicle. The major distraction now a days is talking on mobile phone while driving.
Value signify norms and behavioural traits which are generally accepted as being of great worth in the society
(i) Discipline: Is the ability to obey rules and regulations of the place where one lives or works and being able to do so without being force by anyone.
(ii) Contentment: Can be defined as a state of being happy and satisfied with whatever one has.
(iii) Integrity: Is the ability to stick to sound moral princples at all times.
(iv) Honesty: Can be defined as the state of being truthful and straight forward in whatever we are doing.
WAEC Literature In English Questions and Answers 2021/2022
A secret cult group is referred to as a dangerous and deadly group that share common ideologies, believe in secret, esoteric, mystic and engage in violent practices.
(i)Public campaign against cultism: Different organizations, including the government, schools, religious institutions, and parents, should promote awareness against cultism. Seminars and workshops should be organized to discuss the dangers of cultism all over schools without leaving out the primary schools.
(ii)Government Standard: The government should also make laws to punish cultists for pushing away students and young people from joining these groups. The political leaders supporting them should also be put to judgment because they are damaging other children’s lives to make theirs better;
(iii)Discipline and Studying hard in school to achieve success: Students should be kept busy and engage in school via curricular and extra curricular activities. Because it is a known fact that an “idle mind is the devil’s workshop”. When students are engage with hard work, they will not have time to join cult.
(iv)Moral Education should be made compulsory in the primary and secondary schools in the country.
Parents should take time to understand their children, give enough time to listen to them at home and satisfy their emotional psychological and physical needs.
(i) Right to life, Liberty and security of the person
(ii) Right to non-discrimination equality before the law and equal protection by the law
(iii) Right to the freedom of movement and to choose a residence
(iv) Right to freedom of force labour, slavery, slavery-like practices and servitude
(v) Right to freedom and of thought, conscience and religion
(vi) The right to peaceful assembly and freedom of association
(vii) Right to freedom of opinion and expression
(i) Giving financial support to human rights abuse victims
(ii) Individuals are expected to become conscious their right as citizens and be ready to claim it.
(iii) Joining human rights groups to promote respect for all human rights
(iv) Willingness to report cases of human rights abuse to necessary authorities
(i)It advices in the formulation of the policies of government.
(ii)It implements government policies.
(iii)It advises the government.
(iv)It creates employment opportunities.
(v)It performs delegated /legislative functions.
(i) Poor remuneration: A hungry man is an angry man. The civil service are poorly remunerated which causes them to take bribe. The salary they receive is not even enough for them to pay their children’s school fees. They are not well motivated
(ii) Absence of skilled manpower: Lack of skilled manpower in the civil service causes inefficiency in the civil service. Therefore, any organization that lacks adequate skilled personnel in their organization, will find it difficult carrying out their operations effectively and efficiently.
(iii) Poor human resources management: Human resources management recruits and train workers to work in the organization. But when the organization cannot manage their workers, the workers tend to leave the organization. Poor management of workers causes death of an organization
(iv) Inadequate materials or insufficient materials: Lack of materials for work causes inefficiency in the operations of the civil service. Government failures to provide those necessary materials that can facilitate work in offices contribute to the cause of ineffectiveness in civil service.
(v) Corruption: Corruption has eaten deep into the bones of our civil service, it hard to find a civil servant without the intent to defraud. When corruption continues to thrive in the civil service, it affects the general operations of the civil service.
Modern mode of popular participation is the mode of popular participation carried out through expressing of oneself through the mass media.
(i) Legitimacy of elected governments: If citizens actively participate in electoral process, society will have an elected legitimate government.
(ii) National development: There will be rapid socio-economic development if citizens participate in the electoral or political process.
(iii) Political stability: This ensures law and order for economic and political development in the society.
(iv) Responsible and responsive government: The society will elect or get a government that is receptive to the people’s concerns, needs and aspirations.
(v) Political awareness: When citizens participate in the electoral/political process, they will become politically conscious, enjoy their rights and perform corresponding duties and obligations to the society.
(vi) Credible elections: When citizens actively participate in the electoral or political process it will confer credibility on the process.
Political Parties: these are organized groups of people who share common ideas with the sole aim of contesting elections to gain/assume political power in a democratic state.
Free and independent Press: this refers to a situation or condition in which media organizations are allowed to perform their functions of informing, educating, entertaining people and scrutinizing government activities without undue censorship for the purpose of good governance in a democracy.
Civil Societies organization: these are private non-profit organizations formed to promote collectively shared values, interests and objectives that are capable of enhancing the general welfare and development of democratic states.
Youth Empowerment: A development programme aimed at creating opportunities that will encourage and develop the youths to be morally responsible, self-reliant and financially productive citizens.
(i) Life Coping Skills: These are natural skills which every organism including man, acquires from birth to adapt fittingly in his or its environment. They are survival Instincts or skills.
(ii) Manipulative Skills: These skills are seen in skills acquisition centres as it involves economic activities that inculcate skills such as technical education.
(iii) Intellectual Skills: These skills are coordinates in character. It is the literary or theoretical frameworks that guide the practical aspects of the works, economic and scientific undertakings
(iv) Communicative Skills: Communication is a very important aspect of our life. Man evolved communications skills as a social being to enable him pass or send information from one person to the other or from place to place.
(v) Artistic Skills: These are close to communicative skills and are more complex. Includes they art of good writing, fine and applied arts, music and drama. These skills make effective use of all the other four kinds of skills where necessary.
(vi)Decision-making skills; These can be the difference in making a choice that improves your organization. The aptitude to make decisions is a leadership trait, which portrays your ability to think objectively and relates concepts to the goals you’re trying to reach.
WAEC Literature In English Questions And Answers
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(i) Maintain social distancing. Work from home if possible and avoid large gatherings, public spaces and public transportation:
Keep three to six feet between yourself and others. Avoid social touching, this includes shaking hands, kissing or hugging, instead try a hand wave or a smile.
(ii) Clean “high-touch” surfaces regularly: It’s still unknown if COVID-19 can spread from hard surfaces to people or how long it may live outside the human body, Take extra caution and clean high-touch surfaces like tables, doorknobs, light switches, desks, toilets, faucets, and sinks with household disinfectants that are appropriate for the surface.
(iii) Stop sharing. Even though you may usually steal a bite from your kid’s plate or share a dessert with a friend or spouse, now is the time to be selfish with your food, Don’t share any common kitchen objects such as dishes, drinking glasses, utensils, cups, and, of course, food with anyone—even the people in your home.
(iv) Prepare for your needs in case you’ll need to stay home for an extended period: Make sure you have enough groceries, household items and medications (including over-the-counter medicines) on hand, and that you know how to order more either online or by making a phone call.
(v) Wear a mask or cloth face covering.
A cloth face covering may not protect the wearer, but it may keep the wearer from spreading the virus to others. To reduce the spread of COVID-19, CDC recommends that people wear cloth face coverings in public settings when around people outside of their household, especially when other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain.
Civic education is the study of the theoretical, political and practical aspects of citizenship, as well as its rights and duties.
(i) Peace and Equality: Civic education teaches us to respect each other’s belief and see each other as brothers or equal. One sad reoccurrence in our society today is ethnicity and religious superiority.
(ii) Patriotism: Through Civic education, we as citizens begin to feel love, devotion and attachment to our country. Obeying the laws of the land, promoting good values, shunning vices and active participation in the governance of the nation
(iii) Sustainable Development: The curriculum of Civic education is structured to address the goals of sustainable development which are summed up into social justice, ecological sustainability, good governance and economic productivity.
(iv) Mass media
(i) Law Making
(ii)Control over the Budget
(iv) Amendment of the Constitution
(v) Control over Executive
(i) Law Making: In modern times the most important function of legislature is law making. Ordinary Bills can be introduced by the members of the Parliament and by the Ministers, while Money Bills can be introduced only by the Ministers in the Lower House.
(ii)Control over the Budget: The legislature has control over the budget of the executive (Government) and without its approval the executive cannot spend even a single ‘paisa’. In England and India, the Members of the Parliament can impose a cut on any demand on the budget but they cannot increase it.
(iii) Judicial: In certain countries the legislature has to perform certain judicial functions. For example, in India and America the Parliament and the Congress can remove the President by a process of Impeachment.
(iv) Amendment of the Constitution: In every democracy, the power to amend the constitution rests with the legislature of that country. The only difference is that in some countries, a similar procedure is adopted as that for the amendment of ordinary laws.
(v) Control over Executive: In a Parliamentary Government the Legislature or the Parliament exercises full control over the executive or the Council of Ministers. The Parliament has the right to put Questions and Supplementary Questions to the Cabinet.
Cultism is a form of organization whose activities are not only exclusively kept away from the knowledge of others but such activities are carried out at odd hours of the day and they often clash with the accepted norms and values of everyday life.
(i) The overwhelming influence of peer pressures.
(ii) The parental background, if my dad or mom was in a cult, I will likely join one.
(iii) Society decay in standards, morals, dignity, religious faith, honor and discipline.
(iv) Fallen standard of education.
(i) Breakdown of law and order.
(ii)Violence and social instability.
(iii) Disruption of academic activities.
(iv) Disorientation of societal values.
(v) Premature death of youths who are cult members/innocent victims.
(i) Right To Life.
(ii) Right To freedom Of Expression.
(iii) Right To Fair and equal hearing.
(iv) Right to freedom of movement.
(v) Right to own property.
(i) Right To Life: This right you to live or to exist. Nobody has the right to kill another person or himself or herself.
(ii) Right To freedom Of Expression: Under this right, everyone is free to hold opinions, express same or receive or impart ideas and information without interference. This is the right to say whatever one wants to say. The press I.e Newspapers e.t.c. have the right to say or report any news without being harassed or forced not to do so.
(iii) Right To Fair and equal hearing: Every Citizen has the right to be listened to before they are punished. Even it a thief is caught stealing the court has to listen to his or her defence before dispensing judgment.
(iv) Right to freedom of movement: Every citizen of Nigeria is free to move from one part to the other and to reside in any part of the country. No citizen of Nigeria must be denied entry into and movement out of Nigeria.
(v)Right to own property: Every person is entitled to own private property and no moveable or immovable property or the interest from it can be compulsory acquired in any part of Nigeria.
Conclusively, in a particular case where private interest with the public interest in a particular property, the public interest prevails because it is for public use.
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WAEC Literature Objective Past Questions and Answers 2021
2021 WAEC LITERATURE IN ENGLISH VERIFY EXPO (PAST ANSWERS)
(3) wara is a stranger in mandoland too but has lived there long enough to detest being called stranger, and She is also in love with Kindo, She not born in Mandoland, her mother was taken prisoner by one of mando’s warriors during the war; her mother ran away after giving birth to her.
Wara cautions kindo form doing anything which will anger the spirit, Wara is the only Kindo’s woman that will be sexually assaulted by Whitehead. Maligu and soko lot abduction into a sack and then take to whitehead’s compound. she fortunately escapes. For her love for Kindo, she is ready to risk anything to be with him, likes to follow him everywhere and Kindo is not comfortable with that as a warrior. Her love for Kindo is so intense that she refuses to leave with her grandfather to their homeland but remains in Mandoland in order to be with Kindo. In a way, her mother is seen as a slave ofthe Mando people. This reality poses a great threat to her relationship with Kindo. This is why Kindo cannot take her to the palace.
Even though she has absolute faith in Kindo, she is still very mindful of her integrity as a woman and also respects the customary norms of her society. This is one of the reasons she resists Kindo having her just anywhere and pushes to be taken to the palace. Wara’s steadfastness in preventing Whitehead from raping her is indicative of the resilience of the bloggingAfrican space to Western plundering schemes.
(5) [Pick two]
Charles Marlow, the play’s central male character, is a modest and well-educated man who has set out to court Kate Hardcastle. Believing the Hardcastle home to be an inn, Marlow is rude to Mr. Hardcastle, whom he thinks is the innkeeper. Marlow is extremely shy around upper-class women, becoming a nervous, bumbling fool in their presence. But around women below his status, he becomes a confident and dashing rogue.
(ii)Miss Kate Hardcastle:
Miss Hardcastle is the other central character and the one who does the titular stooping. The daughter of Mr. Hardcastle, she shows her father great respect and love. Unlike Mr. Hardcastle, she appreciates the town and all it offers. Kate is cunning, posing as a maid to deceive Marlow—attracted as he is to women of lower status—into falling in love with her. Kate sees that in order for her relationship with Marlow to blossom, she must drastically alter her personality.
(iii) Tony Lumpkin:
Tony Lumpkin is Mrs. Hardcastle’s son and Mr. Hardcastle’s stepson. He is a mischievous and uneducated playboy who is fond of gambling and performing at the alehouse. Lumpkin is promised in marriage to Constance Neville, his cousin. However, because he despises Constance, he goes to great lengths to help her and Hastings elope to France. The joke that he plays on Marlow—convincing him that the Hardcastle home is an inn—is the central deception that drives the plot forward.
(iv) Mr. Hardcastle:
Mr. Hardcastle is a level-headed man who is in love with all things old. He despises the town and its follies, preferring instead to recount the tales of his time at war. He cares very deeply for his daughter, and he is the one who arranges the marriage between Kate and Marlow. Despite being greatly insulted by Marlow’s initial treatment of him, he manages to keep his temper and, after realizing the deception and misunderstanding at work, forgives Marlow and consents to Marlow’s marriage to Kate.
The mother of Tony and the wife of Mr. Hardcastle, Mrs. Hardcastle is a corrupt and greedy widow. She desires the socialite lifestyle of the London elite and often complains that she and her husband never entertain. She spoils Tony, and her love for him blinds her to his flaws. She promises Tony to Constance in marriage in an attempt to keep her inheritance within the family and to take advantage of Constance’s social standing. Mrs. Hardcastle’s greed and vanity prevents her from seeing Tony’s dislike of Constance.
*The Value and Purpose of Dreams*
A Raisin in the Sun is essentially about dreams, as the main characters struggle to deal with the oppressive circumstances that rule their lives. The title of the play references a conjecture that Langston Hughes famously posed in a poem he wrote about dreams that were forgotten or put off. He wonders whether those dreams shrivel up “like a raisin in the sun.” Every member of the Younger family has a separate, individual dream—Beneatha wants to become a doctor, for example, and Walter wants to have money so that he can afford things for his family. The Youngers struggle to attain these dreams throughout the play, and much of their happiness and depression is directly related to their attainment of, or failure to attain, these dreams. By the end of the play, they learn that the dream of a house is the most important dream because it unites the family.
*The Need to Fight Racial Discrimination*
The character of Mr. Lindner makes the theme of racial discrimination prominent in the plot as an issue that the Youngers cannot avoid. The governing body of the Youngers’ new neighborhood, the Clybourne Park Improvement Association, sends Mr. Lindner to persuade them not to move into the all-white Clybourne Park neighborhood. Mr. Lindner and the people he represents can only see the color of the Younger family’s skin, and his offer to bribe the -Youngers to keep them from moving threatens to tear apart the Younger family and the values for which it stands. Ultimately, the Youngers respond to this discrimination with defiance and strength. The play powerfully demonstrates that the way to deal with discrimination is to stand up to it and reassert one’s dignity in the face of it rather than allow it to pass unchecked.
Role And Character Of Ruth.
Walter’s wife and Travis’s mother. Ruth takes care of the Youngers’ small apartment. Her marriage to Walter has problems, but she hopes to rekindle their love. She is about thirty, but her weariness makes her seem older. Constantly fighting poverty and domestic troubles, she continues to be an emotionally strong woman. Ruth is in some ways like a typical housewife of the 1950s. She makes breakfast, cleans the house, supports her husband, and keeps her own desires to herself. Unlike the stereotypical 1950s housewife, though, she also goes out into the world and works her butt off. Not only does she struggle to maintain her own household, she goes out to work in the households of rich white people as well. Ruth is a “soft” personality type. She is not aggressive; she just lets life “happen” to her. She is the “worn-out wife” with a tedious, routine lifestyle. Hansberry describes Ruth as being “about thirty” but “in a few years, she will be known among her people as a “settled woman”. Ruth has only simple dreams and would be content to live out her life being moderately comfortable. Her biggest dream blossoms only after Mama’s news of the possibility of their moving to a better neighbourhood. Ruth is easily embarrassed and tries too hard to please others. When George Murchison arrives in the middle of Walter and Beneatha’s frenzied African dance, Ruth is overly apologetic to George about their behaviour. When Walter and Beneatha argue, Ruth asks Walter not to bring her into their conflict. And even though Ruth is annoyed by Lena’s (Mama’s) meddling, she still allows her mother-in-law to influence her at times about the correct way to raise Travis. Very low key, Ruth reveals the most emotion when Mama tells her that they may not be able to move; it is only then that Ruth assertively expresses her views. Lacking education and sophistication, Ruth relies upon the suggestions, advice, and even what she thinks might be the wishes of others. Her husband Walter is incredibly dissatisfied with his life, and he constantly takes it out on her. Ruth is far from a doormat and tells her husband off when he starts acting like a jerk. However, it is clear in the play that the turmoil in her marriage is taking a real toll on Ruth. She often seems irritable, depressed, and at times sinks into despair. This all comes to a head for Ruth, when she finds out she is pregnant and considers an abortion. In the ’50s, an abortion would have been (i) illegal and (ii) dangerous. But according to Mama: “When the world gets ugly enough – a woman will do anything for her family. The part that’s already living.” Though Ruth hates the idea of aborting her child, she feels it’s the best decision for her financially strapped family. In the end, though, Ruth chooses to keep her child. She finds hope in the fact that the younger family will soon be moving out of their cramped, roach-infested apartment and into a new house. She’ll still have to work to help pay the mortgage, and they’ll all have to deal with the racist backlash of living in a white neighbourhood.
[Pick any three]
(i) Diction and Imagery:
Generally, the poet’s diction is quite simple and easy to understand. The sentences and other constructions are normal mainstream ones. These make the poem quite enjoyable, Furthermore, the images that the poet evokes in Vanity help in our easy appreciation of the themes they convey to us.
Like everywhere else in poetry, repetition is used here to emphasize the seriousness the persona attaches to the issues he raises.
In Vanity, however, the use of repetition is quite extensive.
The poet’s repetitive use of parallel grammatical structures succeeds in helping us enjoy the flow of his thoughts. It also makes it possible for us to follow his line of argument with relative ease. Significantly, parallelism in Vanity reinforces the deep sense of urgency the poet attaches to the African situation.
(iv) Apostrophe and Monologue:
The persona appears to be addressing an audience that is not directly in his presence. This is what the literary device known as apostrophe is all about.
And since his audience is only imaginary, the whole poem becomes a monologue – a one-person conversation.
The poet’s use of such personal pronouns as we, our, their portrays the poem as both an apostrophe and a monologue.
These are effective in making the tone of the poem interactive.
(v) Rhetorical Question:
A rhetorical question is used when a speaker poses a question without expecting any response from the audience. The poet makes copious use of the rhetorical question in the poem Vanity. They largely go to underline the persona’s reflective mood and his concerned attitude or tone.
“The Schoolboy” is a Romantic poem. The Romantic era was marked by a celebration of nature as the embodiment of perfection. Apart from Williams Blake, other notable Romantic poets include John keats, Percy B Shelley, William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. English poets who have their writings categorized as Romantic poems unambiguously display their love for nature and peace that nature embodied.
In “The Schoolboy”, nature becomes a means of facilitating healing at different levels of life. Romantic poets believed in the use of their imagination to explore literary creativity as a means of deifying nature. They subscribe to the idea that the only way to achieve satisfaction for the soul is to have a profound power of imagination and to also be radical and non-conformists, hence they are perceived to be irrational and daring as they aspire to do things differently. Romantic poets idolize nature and regard it as a great source of inspiration or muse. Romanticists believe that the Industrial Revolution made the world artificial and sterile, making it lose its humanity and humaneness in the process. They found solace in escaping in the beautiful world of nature. Intensive formal education was one of the fallouts of the Industrial Revolution and as seen in the poem, Blake maintains that education takes away the individual’s sense of fulfilment and quest for adventure. As a romantic poem, “The Schoolboy” celebrates and appreciates and condemns every form of human and societal restriction placed on it. It also critiques the destruction of childhood innocence as a result of the emphasis placed on the importance of classroom education. in other words the poetic persona is a young boy who is happy when he wakes up to see the dawn of a new and delightful summer morning. Summer, for the Romanticists, was the season of beauty and unparalleled bliss and joy. The boy is amused by the chirping of the birds announcing a new dawn, he is also fascinated by the melodious sounds coming from the hunter’s horn, sounding from a distant field and the mellow tunes from the skylark bird. All these experiences from the natural world attract the boy to the extent that he exclaims “Oh what sweet company!”. The boy, in search of a practical solution to his predicament, makes an appeal to his parents. It is apparent in his Iamentation that he is of the view that if a promising child like him, is removed from the source of his happiness and joy, nature, he would not be able to flourish.
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